Anal language

Anāl, also known as Pakan Naga after the two principal villages it is spoken in, is a Southern Naga language, part of the Sino-Tibetan language family, spoken by the Anal people in India and a dwindling number in Burma. It had 83,000 speakers in India according to the 2001 census, and 55000 in Burma in 2010.[1] It has two principal clans, murchal and Moshum, and is closest to Lamkang. The language of wider communication is Meithei. Anal is written in the Latin script,[3] with a literacy rate of about 87%.[1]

Native toIndia and Burma
RegionSoutheast Manipur
EthnicityAnal people
Native speakers
120,000 (2011 census)[1]
  • Langet?
Language codes
ISO 639-3anm
qfs Langet


The Namfau (Anal Naga) language started to be written down in the 19-20th century.

Geographical distributionEdit

Anal is spoken in Chandel district, southeastern Manipur, on the banks of the Chakpi River in Chandel, Chakpikarong, and Tangnoupal subdivisions (Ethnologue).


The Latin alphabet is used. It consists of 26 letters.


The following vocabulary exemplifies words in the language.[4]

Anal gloss Anal gloss
khol 'deep hole'; 'social division' ahno 'kind of short skirt'
lunguin 'kind of long shawl' zupar 'rice beer'
piruili 'elopement' Jol min 'bride price'
ithin 'divorce' sinnuperu 'adultery'
pakum 'hearth' mote 'first-born'
kopu 'second-born' cakhow 'brown rice'
khon 'fifty rupees' thunlon 'grave'
dao 'kind of iron blade' shingkho 'plate'
vopum 'basket' athiru 'kind of marble necklace'
akarfo 'kind of China necklace' sanamba 'kind of fiddle'
tilli 'kind of flageolet' tuklee 'kind of loom'


  1. ^ a b c Anāl at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Anal". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Bareh 2007, p. 120
  4. ^ Bareh 2007, pp. 119–128

External LinksEdit