Amurru was an Amorite kingdom established c. 2000 BC, in a region spanning present-day western and north-western Syria and northern Lebanon. The inhabitants spoke the Amorite language, an extinct early Syro-Palestinian language classified as a westernmost or Amorite-specific dialect of Ugaritic. The kingdom and its people were synonymous with their god Amurru, also known as Martu, a storm and weather deity and patron god of the unknown Mesopotamian city of Ninab, titled as bêl šadê and sometimes compared to the Canaanite and Mesopotamian god Adad/Iškur.
|c. 2000 BC–c. 1200 BC|
The geopolitic map of the Middle East during the Amarna Period, before Amurru became part of the Hittite zone of influence
|Religion||Ancient Levantine religion|
• c. 14th century BC
• c. 14th century BC
|Historical era||Bronze Age|
|c. 2000 BC|
|c. 1200 BC|
|Today part of|
The first documented leader of Amurru was Abdi-Ashirta, under whose leadership Amurru was part of the Egyptian empire. His son Aziru made contact with the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I, and eventually defected to the Hittites.
The Amurru kingdom was destroyed by the Sea Peoples around 1200 B.C.
- Al-Maqdissi 2010, p. 140.
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- Paul-Alain Beaulieu, The God Amurru as Emblem of Ethnic and Cultural Identity in "Ethnicity in Ancient Mesopotamia" (W. van Soldt, R. Kalvelagen, and D. Katz, eds.) Papers Read at the 48th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Leiden, July 1–4, 2002 (PIHANS 102; Nederlands Instituut voor her Nabije Oosten, 2005) 31-46
- Bailey, L. R. (1968). "Israelite ’Ēl šadday and Amorite Bêl šadê", Journal of Biblical Literature 87, 434–38.
- Al-Maqdissi, Michel (2010). "Matériel pour l'Étude de la Ville en Syrie (Deuxième Partie): Urban Planning in Syria during the SUR (Second Urban Revolution) (Mid-third Millennium BC)". al-Rāfidān (Journal of Western Asiatic Studies). Institulte for Cultural studies of Ancient Iraq, Kokushikan University. Special Issue. ISSN 0285-4406.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
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