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Aluminium nitrate is a white, water-soluble salt of aluminium and nitric acid, most commonly existing as the crystalline hydrate, aluminium nitrate nonahydrate, Al(NO3)3·9H2O.

Aluminium nitrate
Aluminium nitrate.png
Dusičnan hlinitý.JPG
Names
IUPAC name
Aluminium nitrate
Other names
Nitric Aluminum salt
aluminum nitrate
aluminium(III) nitrate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.396
RTECS number BD1040000 (anhydrous)
BD1050000 (nonahydrate)
Properties
Al(NO3)3
Molar mass 212.996 g/mol (anhydrous)
375.134 g/mol (nonahydrate)
Appearance White crystals, solid
hygroscopic
Odor odorless
Density 1.72 g/cm3 (nonahydrate)
Melting point 66 °C (151 °F; 339 K) (anhydrous)[1]
73.9 °C (165.0 °F; 347.0 K) (nonahydrate)
Boiling point 150 °C (302 °F; 423 K) (nonahydrate) decomposes
anhydrous:
60.0 g/100ml (0°C)
73.9 g/100ml (20 °C)
160 g/100ml (100 °C)
nonahydrate:
67.3 g/100 mL
Solubility in methanol 14.45 g/100ml
Solubility in ethanol 8.63 g/100ml
Solubility in ethylene glycol 18.32 g/100ml
1.54
Hazards
Safety data sheet External MSDS
NFPA 704
Flash point 35 °C (95 °F; 308 K) (nonahydrate)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
4280 mg/kg, oral (rat)
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
none[2]
REL (Recommended)
2 mg/m3[2]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.[2]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Contents

PreparationEdit

Aluminium nitrate cannot be synthesized by the reaction of aluminium with concentrated nitric acid, as the aluminium forms a passivation layer.

Aluminium nitrate may instead be prepared by the reaction of nitric acid with aluminium(III) chloride. Nitrosyl chloride is produced as a by-product; it bubbles out of the solution as a gas. More conveniently, the salt can be made by reacting nitric acid with aluminium hydroxide.

Aluminium nitrate may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable cation such as barium, strontium, calcium, silver, or lead. e.g. Al2(SO4)3 + 3Ba(NO3)2 → 2Al(NO3)3 + 3BaSO4

UsesEdit

Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. It is used in tanning leather, antiperspirants, corrosion inhibitors, extraction of uranium, petroleum refining, and as a nitrating agent.

The nonahydrate and other hydrated aluminium nitrates have many applications. These salts are used to produce alumina for preparation of insulating papers, in cathode ray tube heating elements, and on transformer core laminates. The hydrated salts are also used for the extraction of actinide elements.[3]

It is used in the laboratory and classroom such as in the reaction:

Al(NO3)3 + 3 NaOH → Al(OH)3 + 3 NaNO3

It is, however, much less often encountered then aluminium chloride and aluminium sulphate.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "aluminum nitrate".
  2. ^ a b c NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0024". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8

External linksEdit