Allan Marquand (/ˈmɑːrkwənd/; 1853–1924) was an art historian at Princeton University and a curator of the Princeton University Art Museum.

Allan Marquand
Died1924 (age 71)
NationalityUnited States
OccupationArt historian
Known forCurator of the Princeton University Art Museum
ChildrenMary Marquand Hochschild
FamilyHarold K. Hochschild (son-in-law)
Adam Hochschild (grandson)


Marquand was the son of Henry Gurdon Marquand, a prominent philanthropist and art collector. After graduating from Princeton in 1874, Allan obtained his Ph.D. in Philosophy in 1880, at the Johns Hopkins University. His thesis, supervised by Charles Sanders Peirce, was on the logic of Philodemus. In June 1896, he married Eleanor Cross Marquand, daughter of Richard J. Cross and Matilda Redmond Cross. He returned to Princeton in 1881 to teach Latin and logic.

During the 1881–1882 academic year, Marquand built a mechanical logical machine that is still extant; he was inspired by related efforts of William S. Jevons in the UK. In 1887, following a suggestion of Peirce's, he outlined a machine to do logic using electric circuits. This necessitated his development of Marquand diagrams.[1]

McCosh, the President of Princeton, deemed Marquand's relatively mathematical approach to teaching logic "unorthodox and uncalvinistic",[2] an approach he had learned at Peirce's feet. Hence in 1883, Marquand was offered a position teaching art history, a position he held until his death and at which he excelled. He was elected chairman of the Department of Art and Archaeology in 1905. He also served as the first director of the Princeton University Art Museum, a position he held until his 1922 retirement.

His daughter Mary, married industrialist Harold K. Hochschild.[3]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Marquand, Allan (1881). "XXXIII: On Logical Diagrams for n terms" (PDF). The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. 5. 12 (75): 266–270. doi:10.1080/14786448108627104. (NB. Quite many secondary sources erroneously cite this work as "A logical diagram for n terms" or "On a logical diagram for n terms".)
  2. ^ Lavin, Marilyn Aronberg, 1983. The Eye of the Tiger: The Founding and Development of the Department of Art and Archaeology, 1883–1923. Princeton: The Department of Art and Archaeology and the Art Museum.
  3. ^ New York Times: "Conservationist Harold K. Hochschild, the former head of a large metals company and an active Adirondacks historian and conservationist, died Friday" January 25, 1981

Further readingEdit

  • Ketner, Kenneth Lane, (assisted by A. F. Stewart) 1984, "The Early History of Computer Design: C. S. Peirce and Marquand's Logical Machines," Princeton University Library Chronicle: 187–211.
  • Marquand, Allan
    • 1883, in Charles Sanders Peirce, ed., Studies in Logic by members of the Johns Hopkins University, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, MA, 1883. Reprinted 1983. John Benjamins.
      • "The Logic of the Epicureans," pp. 1–11, Arisbe Eprint. Google Books Eprint.
      • "A Machine for Producing Syllogistic Variations", pp. 12–15 Google Books Eprint.
      • "Note on an Eight-Term Logical Machine", p. 16, Google Books Eprint.
    • 1886, "A New Logical Machine," Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 21: 303–307, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, MA, 1886. Google Books Eprint.
  • Peirce, Charles Sanders, 1993, "Letter, Peirce to A. Marquand" dated 30 December 1886, in Kloesel, C. et al., eds., Writings of Charles S. Peirce: A Chronological Edition: Volume 5: 1884–1886. Indiana University Press: 421-422, with an image of the letter page with the circuits on p. 423.