Aldershot Command was a Home Command of the British Army.
After the success of the Chobham Manoeuvres of 1853, reformers of the British Army decided to create a permanent training camp at Aldershot. To begin the preliminary work a small party of NCOs and men of the Royal Engineers arrived in November 1853 on the site of the present Princes Gardens in the town making them the first soldiers to arrive in Aldershot. These engineers were responsible for surveying and making the preliminary arrangements for The Camp at Aldershot. The Camp was established at Aldershot in 1854 on the recommendation of the Commander-in-Chief, Viscount Hardinge. During the Crimean War, regiments of Militia embodied for home defence were housed at the camp, and the Brigade of Guards used it for summer training, and were reviewed by Queen Victoria.
After the Crimean War, a division of Regular troops was permanently based at Aldershot, and ‘the Division at Aldershot’ (including artillery at Christchurch, Hampshire, and cavalry at Hounslow, Middlesex), became one of the most important home commands of the British Army.
In January 1876 a ‘Mobilization Scheme for the forces in Great Britain and Ireland’ was published, with the ‘Active Army’ divided into eight army corps based on the major Commands and Districts. 2nd Corps was to be formed within Aldershot Command, based at Aldershot. This scheme disappeared in 1881, when the districts were retitled ‘District Commands’. In 1898 (when Queen Victoria’s son, the Duke of Connaught, was General Officer Commanding (GOC)) Aldershot Command was ranked I on the list. A purpose-built command headquarters was completed in 1895.
The 1901 Army Estimates introduced by St John Brodrick allowed for six army corps based on six regional commands. As outlined in a paper published in 1903, I Corps was to be formed in a reconstituted Aldershot Command, with HQ at Aldershot. General Sir Redvers Buller was appointed acting General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOCinC) of I Corps in April 1903.
Composition of Aldershot Command 1907Edit
- 1st Brigade Aldershot
- 2nd Brigade Blackdown
- 3rd Brigade Bordon
- Three Field Artillery Brigades (each of three batteries) Royal Field Artillery
- One Field Artillery (Howitzer) Brigade RFA
- Two Field Companies Royal Engineers
- Two Divisional Telegraph Companies RE
- 4th (Guards) Brigade London
- 5th Brigade Aldershot
- 6th Brigade Aldershot
- Three Field Artillery Brigades RFA
- Two Field Companies RE
- 1st & 2nd Air Line Companies, RE
- 1st & 2nd Cable Telegraph Companies RE
- 1st & 2nd Wireless Telegraph Companies RE
- 1st & 2nd Balloon Companies RE
- 1st & 3rd Bridging Train RE
First World WarEdit
When the BEF was sent to France on the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Aldershot Command provided the basis for I Corps under Lieutenant-General Sir Douglas Haig. The Territorial Force and Special Reserve then took over home defence, with the assembly of Central Force beginning on 18 August 1914. First Army of Central Force was headquartered at Aldershot, with the Highland Division (later 51st (Highland) Division) and Highland Mounted Brigade of the TF under command. For the first two years of the war, command at Aldershot was divided between the Major-General, Administration (Major-General Alexander Hamilton-Gordon) and the commander of Aldershot Training Centre (General Sir Archibald Hunter). Aldershot Command was reinstated in 1916 under Hunter.
Second World WarEdit
In 1939 Regular Troops reporting to Aldershot Command included 1st Infantry Division and 2nd Infantry Division. On the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, a similar process to August 1914 was repeated when the GOCinC Aldershot Command (Sir John Dill) became GOC I Corps in the new BEF despatched to France. Unlike the other Home Commands, Aldershot had no Coast Divisions or other defence forces under its command, and was solely responsible for providing drafts and reserve formations. In 1941 the Command was downgraded to ‘Aldershot Area’ within a new South-Eastern Command. South Eastern Command ceased to exist at the end of 1944, and Aldershot was transferred to Southern Command, without its own GOC.
GOCs were appointed to Aldershot District from 1944 to 1967, when it disappeared in the reorganisation that led to Southern Command being redesignated GHQ UK Land Forces. From 1968, the HQ of South East District was at Aldershot; it was renamed Southern District in 1992, and HQ 4th Division in 1995.
General Officers Commanding-in-ChiefEdit
The Division at Aldershot
- 1857 Lieutenant General Sir William Knollys
- 1 July 1860 Lieutenant General Sir John Pennefather
- 1 October 1865 Lieutenant General Sir James Scarlett
- 1 November 1870 General Sir James Grant
- 14 April 1875 General Sir Thomas Steele
Aldershot District Command
- 1 July 1880 General Sir Daniel Lysons
- 1 August 1883 Lieutenant General Sir Archibald Alison
- 1 January 1889 Lieutenant General Sir Evelyn Wood VC
- 9 October 1893 (GOC-in-C) General the Duke of Connaught
- 9 October 1898 General Sir Redvers Buller VC
Lieutenant-General Commanding Troops at Aldershot, and 1st Army Corps
- 10 January 1901 General Sir Redvers Buller VC GCB KCMG (on his arrival back from South Africa)
- 15 September 1902 Lieutenant General Sir John French
In 1905 title changed to GOC-in-C.
In 1907 title changed to Aldershot Corps.
In 1908 became Aldershot Command again.
- 1 December 1907 Lieutenant General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien
- 1 March 1912 Lieutenant General Sir Douglas Haig
GOC and Major General Administration, Aldershot Command
- 1914-16 Major General Alexander Hamilton-Gordon
GOC Aldershot Training Centre
- 1914-16 General Sir Archibald Hunter
- April 1916 General Sir Archibald Hunter
- 1 October 1917 General Sir Archibald Murray
- 15 November 1919 General Lord Rawlinson
- 2 November 1920 General The Earl of Cavan
- 1922 to 1923 Lieutenant General Sir Thomas Morland
- 1 March 1923 Lieutenant General Sir Philip Chetwode
- 1 March 1927 Lieutenant General Sir David Campbell
- 30 June 1931 Lieutenant General Sir Charles Harrington
- 12 October 1933 Lieutenant General Sir Francis Gathorne-Hardy
- 12 October 1937 Lieutenant General Sir John Dill
- 3 September 1939 to 1940 Lieutenant General Sir Charles Broad
- 7 March 1940 Lieutenant General Michael Barker
- 21 May 1940 Major General Geoffrey Raikes
- 25 June 1940 Major General Dudley Johnson VC
South Eastern Command
- 15 February 1941 Lieutenant General Sir Bernard Paget
- 25 December 1941 Lieutenant General Sir Bernard Montgomery
- 7 August 1942 Lieutenant General Sir John Swayne
- 19 March 1944 Lieutenant General Sir Edmond Schreiber
- 25 September 1944 Lieutenant General Eric Miles
- September 1944 Major General Charles Norman
- December 1944 Major General Henry Curtis
- September 1945 Major General Robert Ross
- September 1946 Major General Sir Noel Holmes
- November 1946 Major General Joseph Baillon
- November 1948 Major General William Dimoline
- 1 September 1951 Major General John Eldridge
- 1953 Major General Edward Burke-Gaffney
- 8 February 1954 Major General Sir Douglas Campbell
- 7 February 1956 Major General Ronald Bramwell-Davis
- 7 February 1960 Major General Sir Denis O’Connor
- 8 November 1961 Major General John Francis Metcalfe
- 7 November 1963 Major General Patrick Man
- 4 July 1966 Major General Charles Stainforth
- Aldershot Military Cemetery on the English Heritage Listed Buildings site
- Hardinge, memorandum dated 23 Sept 1853: The National Archives, WO 33/1.
- Illustrated London News, 15 April 1854.
- "Aldershot Military Museum". Archived from the original on 2009-11-07. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- Illustrated London News, 1855 Volume I, pp 462, 469; 1855 Volume II, pp 22, 54, 452–3.
- Hart’s Army List from 1857
- Monthly Army Lists.
- Army List 1876–1881.
- "Neighbourhood Centre". Rushmoor Council. p. 6. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
- Col John K. Dunlop, The Development of the British Army 1899–1914, London: Methuen, 1938.
- "Redvers Buller". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- Col John J. Dunlop, The Development of the British Army 1899–1914, London: Methuen, 1938.
- Brigadier-General Sir James Edmonds, Military Operations, France and Belgium 1914, Volume I, (London: Macmillan, 3rd edn 1934; Woking: Shearer Publications, 1984 reprint) p 31.
- Brigadier-General Sir James Edmonds, Military Operations, France and Belgium 1914, Volume II (London: Macmillan, 1925; Imperial War Museum/Battery Press reprint (nd)) p 5.
- Patriot Files
- Army List.
- Basil Collier, The Defence of the United Kingdom, London: HMSO 1957, p 77.
- Orders of Battle
- Army Lists..
- Quarterly Army List.
- Army Lists.
- Whitaker's Almanacks 1869 - 1972
- Aldershot Command at Regiments.org
- Army commands Archived July 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- "William Knollys". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "John Pennefather". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "James Yorke Scarlett". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "James Grant". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Thomas Steele". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Daniel Lysons". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Archibald Alison". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- Evelyn Wood Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
- "Duke of Connaught". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Redvers Buller". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "No. 27126". The London Gazette. 13 October 1899. p. 6180.
- "No. 27146". The London Gazette. 22 December 1899. p. 8542.
- "No. 27229". The London Gazette. 14 September 1900. p. 5692.
- "No. 27267". The London Gazette. 18 January 1901. p. 396.
- "Sir Redvers Buller relieved of his command". The Times (36593). London. 23 October 1901. p. 3.
- "No. 27370". The London Gazette. 1 November 1901. p. 7048.
- "John French". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Horace Smith-Dorrien". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Douglas Haig". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Earl of Cavan". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Thomas Morland". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Philip Chetwode". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "David Campbell". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- British Military History: Aldershot Command Archived September 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine