Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Albert Einstein College of Medicine ("Einstein") is a medical school located in the Morris Park neighborhood of the Bronx in New York City. Einstein currently operates as an independent degree-granting institute under the Montefiore Medical Center. Einstein has earned a reputation as one of the nation's foremost medical schools, currently ranked 13th in an outcomes-based study reported in the journal Academic Medicine and consistently ranked as one of the "Best Medical Schools" in both research and primary care by U.S. News & World Report. Faculty members received over $174 million in research grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) alone in 2017, ranking 7th in funding per-investigator across 139 medical schools in the US.
|Type||Private, not-for-profit, nonsectarian|
|Montefiore Medical Center|
|Dean||Gordon F. Tomaselli|
In addition to the M.D. program, Einstein offers Ph.D. degrees in the biomedical sciences and clinical investigation through its Sue Golding Graduate Division. In partnership with Montefiore, Einstein runs one of the nation's largest network of residency programs.
There are 183 first-year medical students in the Class of 2022. 7,052 people applied for seats, and 1,100 were interviewed. 54% of the class identify as women and 16% identify with groups underrepresented in medicine. Ages range from 21-33 with an average age of 23.5. 17% of students were born outside the United States and students come from 20 U.S. states. 8% of students have master's degrees and 13% are certified EMTs. Students have an excellent track record of volunteer service.
Einstein offers an innovative two year pre-clerkship curriculum which incorporates early clinical exposure and extensive small group case-based conferences. Einstein was founded and operates as a secular school, but has university holidays on Jewish holidays due to the tradition from the former affiliation. To simulate the real world of medicine and foster an atmosphere of collegiality, pre-clerkship courses are graded on a pass/fail basis. This curriculum consists of interdisciplinary courses that integrate concepts and knowledge across biomedical science disciplines in a manner relevant to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of human disease. Approximately half of the pre-clerkship curriculum is oriented around laboratory sessions, case-conferences, and clinical encounters to ensure an interactive educational experience. Upon completing their second year, students are required to pass USMLE Step 1 prior to beginning their first clerkship.
In June of the third year, students begin a sequence of clerkships in internal medicine, general surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, obstetrics and gynecology, family medicine, geriatrics, and radiology. They are able to take advantage of Einstein's extensive network of clinical affiliates, including the Jack D. Weiler Hospital and Jacobi Medical Center which are both on-campus. In addition to the clerkship curriculum, opportunities for small group case-based discussions on topics related to prevention, professionalism, and ethics continue in a course entitled Patients, Doctors, and Communities. Fourth year students are required to take four months of rotations including two sub-internships, one month within the ambulatory care program focusing on outpatient medicine or pediatrics, and one month of neurology. The remaining seven months of the year consist of electives. All students are required to write a scholarly paper which can be based on bench research, clinical research, global health, or analysis of a bioethics topic.
Medical Scientist Training ProgramEdit
Einstein's MSTP was one of the original three programs funded by the NIH in 1964, and has been funded continuously since then. The program is designed to train investigators who could bridge the gap between basic science and clinical research by providing integrated graduate and clinical training. Einstein's MSTP offers and integrated first year curriculum covering both graduate and medical coursework. Second year MSTP students complete the second year M.D. curriculum while working to select a Ph.D. thesis advisor. After performing one clinical clerkship, students commence their thesis research while completing any remaining coursework required for their graduate department. Students are expected to publish at least one first author, peer-reviewed paper. On average students publish two first-author papers and four papers. After defending their dissertation, students complete the required clinical clerkships then have the opportunity to take "fourth-year" electives. The program offers tuition remission and a $35,000 annual stipend as well as medical insurance, subsidized housing, a gym membership, and biannual retreats. While on dissertation status, students have the opportunity to attend the MSTP continuity clinic which ensures they stay in touch with patients and the clinical atmosphere.
Master's Degree ProgramsEdit
The Clinical Research Training Program, founded in 1998, leads to the awarding of the Master of Science in Clinical Research Methods. This program involves spending one year after clerkships and some elective time during the fourth year completing courses in clinical research methods and driving a mentor-guided research project that leads to two first-author manuscripts. This program is offered at no additional cost to medical students and fellowship stipends are available. In addition to medical students, clinical fellows and academic researchers also take part in this training.
In partnership with The Cardozo School of Law, Einstein offers a Master of Science in Bioethics that focuses on transnational work in bioethics to help professionals improve care and communication.
Since the first graduating class in 1961, the Graduate Division of Biomedical Sciences has trained more than 1600 students, including 400 M.D./Ph.D. students. The average time to complete the degree is 5.8 years, and students produce an average of four peer-reviewed papers and two first-author peer-reviewed papers. Students do not apply to a specific department, but rather to the Ph.D. program as a whole which allows for the opportunity to rotate across laboratories and disciplines to make an informed choice regarding their thesis laboratory.
The Albert Einstein College of Medicine has an extensive network of affiliated hospitals, most notable of which are the hospitals operated by Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital of Einstein. Students and residents also train at Jacobi Medical Center, Einstein's founding hospital and first affiliate. Einstein maintains affiliations with other hospital systems including: BronxCare Health System, North Central Bronx Hospital, St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx, Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, and Northwell Health on Long Island. Through its affiliation network, Einstein runs one of the largest postgraduate medical training programs in the US.
Einstein runs the Rose F. Kennedy Center, which conducts research and treatment for people with developmental disabilities.
Samuel Belkin, president of Yeshiva University, began planning a new medical school as early as 1945. Six years later, Belkin and New York City Mayor Vincent Impellitteri entered into an agreement to begin its construction with funding from Henry H. Minskoff. Around the same time, world-renowned physicist and humanitarian Albert Einstein sent a letter to Belkin. He remarked that such an endeavor would be "unique" in that the school would "welcome students of all creeds and races". Two years later, on his 74th birthday, March 14, 1953, Albert Einstein agreed to have his name attached to the medical school.
The first classes began September 12, 1955, with 56 students. It was the first new medical school to open in New York City since 1897. The Sue Golding Graduate Division was established in 1957 to offer Doctor of Philosophy degrees in biomedical disciplines. The Medical Scientist Training Program, a combined MD–PhD program, was started 1964. The Clinical Research Training Program, which confers Master of Science degrees in clinical research methods, began in July 1998.
Notable research and achievementsEdit
Einstein has been the site of major medical achievements and accomplishments, including:
- In 1964, Einstein was the first medical school in the United States to establish a Department of Genetics.
- In 1965, Einstein opened one of the first General Clinical Research Centers in the US, funded by the NIH
- The residency program in Social Medicine was established in 1970, in part to address the shortage of primary care clinicians in underserved communities.
- In 1974, Einstein's Liver Research Center—now the Marion Bessin Liver Research Center—became the first institute in the United States for the study of liver disease and injury.
- In 1976, researchers at Einstein identified the mechanism of action of Taxol, an important cancer drug. (Susan B. Horwitz)
- In 1978, Einstein was designated a Diabetes Research and Training Center, one of seven in the US. Prominent scientists involved in research on the insulin receptor, the mechanisms of diabetes complications, glucose toxicity, control of metabolism by the brain, and hypoglycemia have done research there.
- In 1988, one of the first Centers for AIDS Research in the country funded by the NIH was created at Einstein. Researchers were among the first to identify pediatric AIDS as a distinct disease and established the first day-care center in the world for children with AIDS. (Arye Rubinstein)
- The first Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) was performed at Montefiore Medical Center in 1992 by Drs. Frank Veith, Michael Marin and Juan Parodi.
- In 1994, Einstein became the only New York City medical school selected by the NIH to participate in the Women's Health Initiative, the largest research study of women's health ever undertaken. (Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, principal investigator)
- In 2006, Einstein became the only medical institution in the Northeast to serve as a research site for the Hispanic Community Health Study, the largest research study of Hispanic health ever conducted. (Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, principal investigator)
- Einstein researchers demonstrated the association between reduced levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), or "good" cholesterol, and heart disease.
- Einstein researchers identified a neurotransmitter missing from the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, a finding that influenced much subsequent Alzheimer's disease research. (Peter Davies)
- Researchers at Einstein discovered structural abnormalities of brain cells that explain deficiencies in cognitive development, greatly contributing to the understanding of mental retardation. (Dominick P. Purpura)
- Einstein researchers helped discover the mechanisms responsible for the diversity of antibodies and their precision in immune responses. (Matthew D. Scharff)
- Scientists at Einstein pioneered research that has led to improved methods of avoiding organ transplant rejection. (Stanley G. Nathenson)
- Einstein researchers have conducted important epidemiologic research in migraines and other types of headaches. (Richard B. Lipton)
- The Division of Substance Abuse is the largest addiction treatment program in the Bronx, the second largest public treatment program in New York State, and the largest in the world operating under the auspices of a medical school. It serves more than 3,600 people, and provides comprehensive opioid addiction treatment at nine community-based outpatient facilities located throughout the borough, as well as ambulatory services for all substances of abuse at the Division’s Chemical Dependency Wellness Services program in facilities located in the North and South Bronx.
Allegations of discriminationEdit
The College of Medicine has been the center of several allegations of discrimination. In 1994, Einstein was sued by Heidi Weissmann, a researcher in nuclear medicine and former associate professor of radiology, for sexual discrimination for not promoting her due to gender bias. The case was settled for $900,000. Heidi Weissmann also won a copyright infringement suit against her former colleague and co-author Leonard M. Freeman, who published as his own an article written by Weissmann after adding three words to the title.
In 1998, Yeshiva University and Einstein were sued by the American Civil Liberties Union for discrimination of two medical students over their sexual orientation by not allowing their non-student, non-married partners to live with them in student housing.
Transfer from Yeshiva University to Montefiore Health SystemEdit
In February 2015, Yeshiva University announced the transfer of ownership of Einstein to the Montefiore Health System, in order to eliminate a large deficit from the university's financial statements. The medical school accounted for approximately two-thirds of the university's annual operating deficits, which had reached about $100 million before the announcement. On September 9, 2015, the agreement between Yeshiva and Montefiore was finalized, and financial and operational control of Albert Einstein College of Medicine was transferred to Montefiore. Yeshiva University continued to grant Einstein's degrees until 2018, as the medical school achieved independent degree-granting authority in the spring of 2019.
Einstein has many departments in various fields of academic medicine and basic science. PhD and MD–PhD degrees are offered in:
Centers and institutesEdit
- The Children's Evaluation and Rehabilitation Center is the main clinical arm of the Rose F. Kennedy Center, one of 67 similar centers in the United States. Composed of ten interdisciplinary teams, the CERC provides care for approximately 8,000 children and adults with developmental and other disabilities. Under the direction of Robert W. Marion, a medical geneticist, the CERC provides care to children with disabilities and to their families, educates students and professionals with an interest in the field of neurodevelopmental disabilities, and conducts research into the causes and potential treatments of the conditions that affect patients. The research arm of CERC is headed by John J. Foxe.
- The CERC is home to one of 36 Leadership in Neurodevelopmental Disabilities programs in the US, and offers hands-on education to professionals in developmental and behavioral pediatrics, special care and general dentistry, medical genetics and genetic counseling, psychiatry, psychology, social work, nursing, and other specialties. Each year, more than 1,000 medical, dental, nursing, and other professionals participate in its educational programs.
- Since 2007, the CERC has also developed a substantial clinical research program, investigating the causes and treatments of such conditions as autism and autism spectrum disorder, sensorineural hearing loss, and cerebral palsy.
- The Center for Ethics at Yeshiva University and the Institute for Public Health Sciences are affiliated with the medical school.
- Albert Einstein Cancer Center
- Center for AIDS Research
- Diabetes Research and Training Center
- Hispanic Center of Excellence
- Institute for Aging Research
- Institute for Clinical and Translational Research
- Institute for Onco-Physics
- See all centers
The Einstein Campus is named for Jack and Pearl Resnick. Its main features are:
- The Leo Forchheimer Medical Sciences Building (1953) was the school's first building. It contains Robbins auditorium (the second-year medical students' lecture hall), Max and Sadie Friedman Lounge, biological research labs and anatomy labs, other lecture halls for graduate courses, and the school's D. Samuel Gottesman Library. In 2007, the building caught on fire twice, severely disrupting classes and research.
- The Mazer Building contains the Lubin Student Center, which is the school's kosher dining hall, the Singer faculty club, and faculty offices.
- The Ullmann Research Center for Health Sciences (1964) contains research laboratories.
- The Arthur B. and Diane Belfer Educational Center for Health Sciences (1972) is the school's main educational building and houses the first-year medical students' lecture hall (Riklis Auditorium), instructional labs, classrooms, conference rooms, and administrative offices.
- The Irwin B. and Sylvia Chanin Institute for Cancer Research (1978) has laboratories for cancer research
- The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center.
- The Samuel H. and Rachel Golding Building (1996) is a 10-story biomedical research facility that is an addition to the original Forchheimer building.
- Morris Park Avenue bisects the campus, separating the majority of academic and research buildings from the residential buildings and new construction.
- The Michael F. Price Center for Genetic and Translational Medicine is a $220 million research building, opened and dedicated on June 12, 2008. It is 201,000 square feet (18,700 m2), houses 40 laboratories, including a BSL-3 laboratory for infectious disease research.
- The Van Etten Building contains the Ruth L. Gottesman Clinical Skills Center, a 22,700-square-foot (2,110 m2) space of classrooms and 23 examination rooms for the clinical instruction of first- and second-year medical students.
- The Eastchester Road Residence Complex, as three 28-story apartment buildings containing 634 apartments, provides housing to MD and PhD students, post-doctoral fellows, and their families.
- The Falk Recreation Center, which opened in 1987, houses a gym, pool, indoor track, and basketball, squash and racquetball courts.
- The Jack D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, a division of Montefiore Medical Center.
The Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research in Mental Retardation and Human Development is on the adjacent campus of Jacobi Medical Center. The Rhinelander Hall Residence Complex, several blocks away on Rhinelander Avenue, houses post-doctoral fellows and medical students.
Einstein College is located in Morris Park, a residential neighborhood in the northeast Bronx. The Bronx Zoo and the New York Botanical Garden are nearby. The fishing community of City Island, which features marinas and a broad selection of seafood restaurants, is also a short distance away.
There are more than 50 student clubs with a variety of activities, medical specialties, and a wide range of religious, political, and ethnic affiliations. Offerings include dance and movie clubs, an arts and literary magazine, and the Einstein Community Health Outreach, which launched New York State's first student-coordinated free clinic.
- Goldstein, Matthew J.; Lunn, Mitchell R.; Peng, Lily (May 2015). "What Makes a Top Research Medical School? A Call for a New Model to Evaluate Academic Physicians and Medical School Performance:". Academic Medicine. 90 (5): 603–608. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000000646. ISSN 1040-2446.
- "Yeshiva University (Einstein)". U.S. News & World Report.
- "Einstein Ranks 7th in NIH Awards Per Principal Investigator Among Top U.S. Medical Schools". Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2019-03-01.
- "Profile of the Class of 2022 | M.D. Admissions | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- "Academic Calendar | M.D. Program | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2019-07-15.
- "Years 1 & 2 | M.D. Program | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- "Years 3 & 4 | M.D. Program | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- "History | Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- "Program Description | Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- "Features | Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- "Master Degree Programs | M.D. Program | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- "Einstein Students Complementing the M.D. with the M.B.E. | Einstein-Cardozo Bioethics Graduate Education | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- "Einstein Graduate Student Outcomes & Alumni Statistics | Graduate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- "Getting to The Weiler Division". Montefiore.org. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- New York Times: "Henry H. Minskoff, 73, Head of Major Building Company" by Glenn Fowler August 15, 1984.
- "Einstein: Albert Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
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- "Welcome to the MSTP @ Einstein!", Albert Einstein College of Medicine website.
- "C.R.T.P. Home — Clinical & Translational Research — Albert Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Einstein Firsts — Albert Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- "Medical School, Researcher Settle Sex Bias Lawsuit; Experts Say $900,000 Payment Could Encourage Similar Cases". The Washington Post. March 18, 1994.
- "Heidi S. Weissmann, M.D., Cross-Appellee v. Leonard M. Freeman, M.D., Cross-Appellant, 868 F.2d 1313 (2d Cir. 1989)". 1989.
- Honan, William H. (June 25, 1998). "A.C.L.U. Sues Yeshiva U. On Housing for Gay Couples". New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Yeshiva U. Finally Closes Deal To Shed Burden of Money-Losing Einstein Medical School The Jewish Daily Forward, 4 February 2015.
- "Yeshiva University, Montefiore Finalize New Agreement for Albert Einstein College of Medicine". news-medical.net. News-Medical.net. September 10, 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Yeshiva University, Montefiore finalize new agreement for Albert Einstein College of Medicine". 10 September 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
- Spiegel, Allen M. (September 9, 2015). "Promising Future for "New" Einstein" (PDF). einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Academic Departments - Albert Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Albert Einstein College of Medicine: Microbiology & Immunology". einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Department of Molecular Pharmacology". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Department of Physiology and Biophysics". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Children's Evaluation & Rehabilitation Center". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Einstein's Children Evaluation and Rehabilitation Center Names First Research Director — Einstein News". einstein.yu.edu. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Albert Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Overview - Einstein-Rockefeller-CUNY Center for AIDS Research - Albert Einstein College of Medicine". www.aecom.yu.edu. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
- "Einstein Diabetes Research Center - Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NYC, NY". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Albert Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Institute for Aging Research - Albert Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Institute for Clinical & Translational Research - Albert Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Institute for Oncophysics". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Centers - Albert Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Einstein Announces Major Expansion of MRI Research Facility - Einstein News". einstein.yu.edu. 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Einstein Clinical Skills, Bronx, NY - EE&K — Ehrenkrantz Eckstut & Kuhn Architects". eekarchitects.com. Archived from the original on 2010-11-07. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Einstein Van Etten Building, Bronx, NY - EE&K — Ehrenkrantz Eckstut & Kuhn Architects". eekarchitects.com. Archived from the original on 2010-11-07. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Student Life - Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Home — ECHO Free Clinic — Albert Einstein College of Medicine". einstein.yu.edu. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- Official website
- YouTube EDU—Einstein YouTube page.
- D. Samuel Gottesman Library—official website.
- Yeshiva University—official site.
- Montefiore Medical Center—official website.
- MD Degree Program – Education Website—educational informatics website.
- Einstein Medical Scientist Training Program (MD–PhD)—official website.
- GSC—Einstein Graduate Student Council—student-body's resource-rich website.
- EPA—Einstein Postdoc Association—Einstein postdoc website.
- AECOMmunity—Einstein medical student Website—student-run resource website.
- ECHO free clinic
- The Doctor's Tablet Faculty and staff-written blog.