Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-As
Al-Hakam was the son of Abu al-As ibn Umayya. His paternal grandfather was the progenitor of the Umayyad clan and dynasty. Al-Hakam married Amina bint Alqama ibn Safwan al-Kinaniyya after she was divorced by his brother Affan. She gave birth to al-Hakam’s son, Marwan, who would later become an Umayyad caliph. He had other sons, including Yahya and Harith.
Al-Hakam was known to have staunchly opposed the Islamic prophet Muhammad and was thus exiled by the latter from Mecca to the nearby town of Taif. According to the history of 9th-century historian al-Tabari, Muhammad later pardoned al-Hakam and he was allowed to return to his hometown. However, in the history of 9th-century historian al-Yaqubi, al-Hakam was allowed to return to Mecca by his nephew, Caliph Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), after his petitions to return were rejected by the previous two caliphs, Abu Bakr (r. 632–634) and Umar (r. 634–644).
- Donner 2014, p. 106.
- Al-Tabari, ed. Humphreys 1990, p. 227, n. 48.
- Al-Tabari, ed. Humphreys 1990, p. 227.
- Al-Yaqubi, ed. Gordon 2018, p. 799.
- Donner, Fred (2014). "Was Marwan ibn al-Hakam the First "Real" Muslim". In Savant, Sarah Bowen; de Felipe, Helena (eds.). Genealogy and Knowledge in Muslim Societies: Understanding the Past. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-4497-1.
- Humphreys, R. Stephen, ed. (1990). The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume 15: The Crisis of the Early Caliphate: The Reign of ʿUthmān, A.D. 644–656/A.H. 24–35. SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0154-5.
- Al-Yaqubi (2018). Gordon, Michael (ed.). The Works of Ibn Wāḍiḥ al-Yaʿqūbī (Volume 3): An English Translation. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-35619-1.