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Closeup of a woman in southern Iran wearing the battula

Battoulah (Arabic: البطولة‎, romanizedal-baṭṭūlah) is a metallic-looking mask traditionally worn by Muslim[1][2][3][4] Arab women in Arab states of the Persian Gulf, including Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Qatar, as well as in southern Iran.[5] The origin of the battoulah is unknown,[5] but it is thought to have entered the Eastern Arabian Peninsula from Gujarat in late 18th century.[6]

The tradition is less popular with the newer generations, but is still followed by women in their 50s and above 50, and by those living in rural areas.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^[unreliable source?]
  2. ^[unreliable source?]
  3. ^ Brydon, Lynne; Chant, Sylvia H. (11 August 1989). "Women in the Third World: Gender Issues in Rural and Urban Areas". Rutgers University Press – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Qazi, Moin (11 August 2018). "Women In Islam- Exploring New Paradigms". Notion Press – via Google Books.
  5. ^ a b "CLOTHING xxiii. Clothing of the Persian Gulf – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
  6. ^ Rajab, Jehan S. (1997). Silver Jewellery of Oman. Kuwait: Tareq Rajab Museum; Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 48. & 52., ISBN 9781860643101