Open main menu

Urban area (France)

  (Redirected from Aire urbaine)

Map of France indicating its commune municipalities. The colours show the urban organisation status of each municipality in 2010 :
Urban areas of France in 2010, broken down by communes:
  Red: urban communes also urban poles of an urban area
  Orange: other urban communes in a single urban area
  Yellow: urban communes linked to at least two urban areas
  White: rural communes

An aire urbaine (literal and official translation: "urban area"[1]) is an INSEE (France's national statistics bureau) statistical concept describing a core of urban development and the extent of its commuter activity.

DefinitionEdit

The aire urbaine is built from France's nationwide interlocking administrative commune municipalities: when a commune has over 2000 inhabitants and contains a centre of dense construction (buildings spaced no more than 200 metres apart), it is combined with other adjoining communes fulfilling the same criteria to become a single unité urbaine ("urban unit"[2]); if an urban unit offers over 10,000 jobs and its economical development is enough to draw more than 40% of the population of a nearby municipalities (and other municipalities drawn to these in the same way) as commuters, it becomes a pôle urbain ("urban cluster"[3]) and the "commuter municipalities" become its couronne ("rim"[4]), but this only on the condition that the urban unit itself is not part of another urban cluster's rim. The aire urbaine is an urban cluster and its rim combined, or a statistical area describing a central urban core and its economic influence on surrounding municipalities.

Types of aires urbainesEdit

As of 2010, depending on their population and function, aires urbaines adopt the following secondary appellations:

  • aires urbaines with more than 500,000 inhabitants and 20,000 official 'metropolitan-type jobs' are considered aires métropolitaines ('metropolitan areas')[5]
  • aires urbaines with more than 200,000 inhabitants are considered grandes aires ('large urban areas')[6]
  • aires urbaines centred around a 'pole' urban unit with 5,000 to 10,000 jobs (with at least 40% of the surrounding commune populations working there) are 'moyennes aires' ('medium urban areas').[7]
  • aires urbaines centred around a 'pole' urban unit with 1,500 to 5,000 jobs (with at least 40% of the surrounding commune populations working there) are 'petites aires' ('small urban areas').[8]

HistoryEdit

In France multiple words exist to define various kinds of urban area.

One of the first word used was the word agglomération, which first was used to deal with a group of people. The word was used for instance in the law from 5 april 1884 (loi du 5 avril 1884) whose article 98 gives to the mayor police power (pouvoirs de police) meaning authority on the city, but only within the agglomération. That law was used by a jurispruudence from year 1907 to forbid a mayor to set a speed limit on the road next to a farm considering that at that time, a group of houses inside a farm might be an agglomération, but the road next to it was not inside the agglomération.[9][10].

Later, in the 1920s, the concept of agglomération was used in the code de la route (Highway code) to define specifc law within/outside such a zone.

In 1968, the French word agglomération was introduced in the French version of the Vienna convention on road traffic in the place where the English word built-up area was used in the English version of this exact same treaty. In this treaty, the word is only defined as a concept signaled by an entry sign and an exist sign, even if allowing members of the treaty to have different definition.

Nowadays, with globalisation words from English origin or english meaning tend to be introduced in French language to introcuce in France new concepts or new words or new meanings for old words and/or to change the size and the power a mayor can have. Such words are Aire urbaines (urban area), Métropole, Agglomération (agglomeration), Communauté urbaine, Gand something (Grand Paris, Grand Toulouse), and probably other words.

As a member of the European Union, the OECD and the European Union, for statistical purpose, France might need to cope with inside/outside built-up area meaning inside/outside the limits of an urban area.

List of France's aires urbaines (metropolitan areas)Edit

The following is a list of the twenty largest aires urbaines (metropolitan areas) in France, based on their population at the 2011 census. Population at the 2006 census is indicated for comparison.

Between 2006 and 2011, Toulouse, Rennes, Montpellier, Nantes, Bordeaux and Lyon had the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in France.

Rank
(2011)
Rank
(2006)
Aire urbaine
(metropolitan area)
Population
(2011)
Population
(2006)
Yearly change
(2006-2011)
Land area
(km²)
1 1  Paris[11] 12,292,895 11,956,493 +0.56% 17,174
2 2  Lyon[12] 2,188,759 2,085,107 +0.98% 6,019
3 3  Marseille - Aix-en-Provence[13] 1,720,941 1,692,459 +0.33% 3,174
4 4  Toulouse[14] 1,250,251 1,169,865 +1.34% 5,381
5 5  Lille (French part)[15] 1,159,547 1,152,507 +0.12% 926
6 6  Bordeaux[16] 1,140,668 1,086,106 +0.99% 5,613
7 7  Nice[17] 1,003,947 995,968 +0.16% 2,585
8 8  Nantes[18] 884,275 841,404 +1.00% 3,302
9 9  Strasbourg (French part)[19] 764,013 749,766 +0.38% 2,198
10 12  Rennes[20] 679,866 637,673 +1.29% 3,747
11 10  Grenoble[21] 675,122 659,459 +0.47% 2,621
12 11  Rouen[22] 655,013 643,499 +0.36% 2,367
13 13  Toulon[23] 606,987 598,514 +0.28% 1,196
14 15  Montpellier[24] 561,326 529,401 +1.18% 1,673
15 14  Douai - Lens[25] 542,946 545,636 −0.10% 679
16 17  Avignon[26] 515,123 501,866 +0.52% 2,083
17 16  Saint-Étienne[27] 508,548 508,284 +0.01% 1,689
18 18  Tours[28] 480,378 469,244 +0.47% 3,184
19 19  Clermont-Ferrand[29] 467,178 454,553 +0.55% 2,420
20 20  Nancy[30] 434,565 432,481 +0.10% 2,367

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Definitions and methods: Urban area
  2. ^ Definitions and methods: Urban unit
  3. ^ Definitions and methods: Urban Cluster
  4. ^ Definitions and methods: Rim
  5. ^ "Un maillage du territoire français - Insee Première - 1333". www.insee.fr (in French). Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  6. ^ "Un maillage du territoire français - Insee Première - 1333". www.insee.fr (in French). Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  7. ^ "Base des aires urbaines | Insee". www.insee.fr (in French). Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  8. ^ "Base des aires urbaines | Insee". www.insee.fr (in French). Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  9. ^ https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5809154m/f31.item
  10. ^ https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5752228f/f13.item
  11. ^ Paris
  12. ^ Lyon
  13. ^ Marseille-Aix-en-Provence
  14. ^ Toulouse
  15. ^ Lille
  16. ^ Bordeaux
  17. ^ Nice
  18. ^ Nantes
  19. ^ Strasbourg
  20. ^ Rennes
  21. ^ Grenoble
  22. ^ Rouen
  23. ^ Toulon
  24. ^ Montpellier
  25. ^ Douai-Lens
  26. ^ Avignon
  27. ^ Saint-Étienne
  28. ^ Tours
  29. ^ Clermont-Ferrand
  30. ^ Nancy

External linksEdit

  • Geopolis: research group, university of Paris-Diderot, France - Population of urban areas of 10,000 or more