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Affection, attraction, infatuation, or fondness is a "disposition or state of mind or body"[1] that is often associated with a feeling or type of love. It has given rise to a number of branches of philosophy and psychology concerning emotion, disease, influence, and state of being.[2] "Affection" is popularly used to denote a feeling or type of love, amounting to more than goodwill or friendship. Writers on ethics generally use the word to refer to distinct states of feeling, both lasting and spasmodic. Some contrast it with passion as being free from the distinctively sensual element.[3]

Even a very simple demonstration of affection can have a broad variety of emotional reactions, from embarrassment to disgust to pleasure and annoyance. It also has a different physical effect on the giver and the receiver.[4]

Contents

Restricted definitionEdit

 
A typical American couple displaying affection towards each other.

More specifically, the word has been restricted to emotional states, the object of which is a living thing such as a human or animal. Affection is compared with passion[5], from the Greek "pathos". As such it appears in the writings of French philosopher René Descartes,[6] Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza[7], and most of the writings of early British ethicists. However, on various grounds (e.g., that it does not involve anxiety or excitement and that it is comparatively inert and compatible with the entire absence of the sensuous element), it is generally and usefully distinguished from passion.[clarification needed] In this narrower sense the word has played a great part in ethical systems, which have spoken of the social or parental affections as in some sense a part of moral obligation.[3] For a consideration of these and similar problems, which depend ultimately on the degree in which the affections are regarded as voluntary.[8]

ExpressionEdit

Affection can be communicated by words, gestures, or touches. Affectionate behavior may have evolved from parental nurturing behavior due to its associations with hormonal rewards.[9] Such affection has been shown to influence brain development in infants.[10] Expressions of affection can be unwelcome if they pose implied threats to one's well being. If welcomed, affectionate behavior may be associated with various health benefits. It has been proposed that positive sentiment increases the propensity of people to interact and that familiarity gained through affection increases positive sentiment among them.[11]

Affection can be displayed in different manners in different cultural societies. For example, in some cultures, such as Cambodia, Chinese in Southeast Asia, northern Manchu tribes along Amur River[12][13][14][15][16] It is especially a Chinese custom for grandmothers, mothers, and elder sisters to calm their baby boys with fellatio.[17][18]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Affection - Define Affection at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  2. ^ "17th and 18th Century Theories of Emotions > Francis Hutcheson on the Emotions (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  3. ^ a b   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Affection". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 299–300. 
  4. ^ "The Effects of Affection | Research Matters". researchmatters.asu.edu. Retrieved 2015-08-30. 
  5. ^ Fernández, Damián J. (1 January 2010). "Cuba and the Politics of Passion". University of Texas Press. Retrieved 19 November 2017 – via Google Books. 
  6. ^ René Descartes. "The Passions of the Soul" (PDF). Earlymoderntexts.com. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  7. ^ LeBuffe, Michael (19 November 2017). Zalta, Edward N., ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 19 November 2017 – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 
  8. ^ "Methods of Ethics" (PDF). Earlymoderntexts.com. p. 345–349. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  9. ^ according to Communication professor Kory Floyd of the University of Arizona
  10. ^ Infant Observation: International Journal of Infant Observation and Its Applications
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-16. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  12. ^ Gloria Leifer (2014). Introduction to Maternity and Pediatric Nursing. Translated by Gao, Bingzhong. corrected by Liu ooks.google.com/books?id=vMaNCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA575&dq=Telugu+baby+penis&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj1oe-y453XAhUE3IMKHRKEBzgQ6AEILDAB#v=onepage&q=Telugu%20baby%20penis&f=false. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 575. ISBN 9787100019125.  Unknown parameter |DUPLICATE_author= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |DUPLICATE_title= ignored (help)
  13. ^ Sergeĭ Mikhaĭlovich Shirokogorov (1924). Social Organization of the Manchus: a study of the Manchu clan organization. Ardent Media. pp. 122, 123. ISBN 9780404569464. 
  14. ^ Cambodia. PediaPress. p. 575. 
  15. ^ Robin Grille (2014). Parenting for a Peaceful World. New Society Publishers. p. 36. ISBN 9781550925814. 
  16. ^ A. Kleinman; T.Y. Lin (2013). Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Chinese Culture: Volume 2 of Culture, Illness and Healing. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 375. ISBN 9789401749862. 
  17. ^ Avodah K. Offit (1995). Night Thoughts: Reflections of a Sex Therapist. Jason Aronson, Incorporated. p. 63. ISBN 1461629756. 
  18. ^ Irwin M. Marcus; John J. Francis (1975). Masturbation: from infancy to senescence. International Universities Press. p. 371. ISBN 9780823631506. 

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit