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In Greek mythology, Adrasteia (/ˌædrəˈstə/; Greek: Ἀδράστεια (Ionic Greek: Ἀδρήστεια), "inescapable"; also spelled Adrastia, Adrastea, Adrestea, Adastreia or Adrasta) was a Cretan nymph, and daughter of Melisseus, who was charged by Rhea with nurturing the infant Zeus in secret, to protect him from his father Cronus.[1]

Adrastea may be interchangeable with Cybele, a goddess also associated with childbirth. The Greeks cultivated a patronic system of gods who served specific human needs, conditions or desires to whom one would give praise or tribute for success in certain arenas such as childbirth.[citation needed]

Contents

MythologyEdit

Zeus's nurseEdit

Both the early 3rd-century BC poet Callimachus, and the mid 3rd-century BC poet Apollonius of Rhodes, name Adrasteia (here possibly another name for Nemesis) as a nurse of the infant Zeus.[2] According to Callimachus, Adrasteia, along with the ash-tree nymphs, the Meliae, laid Zeus "to rest in a cradle of gold", and fed him with honeycomb, and the milk of the goat Amaltheia.[3] Apollonius of Rhodes, describes a wondrous toy ball which Adrasteia gave the child Zeus, when she was his nurse in the "Idean cave".[4]

According to Apollodorus, Adrasteia and Ida were daughters of Melisseus, who nursed Zeus, feeding him on the milk of Amalthea.[5] Hyginus says that Adrasteia, along with her sisters Ida and Amalthea, were daughters of Oceanus, or that according to "others" they were Zeus's nurses, "the ones that are called Dodonian Nymphys (others call them the Naiads)".[6]

Possible other related goddessesEdit

Adrasteia was an epithet of Nemesis, a primordial goddess of the archaic period. (Her name appears as a-da-ra-te-ja in Mycenaean Pylos.)[7] The epithet is derived by some writers from Adrastus, who is said to have built the first sanctuary of Nemesis on the river Asopus,[8] and by others from the Greek verb διδράσκειν (didraskein), according to which it would signify the goddess whom none can escape.[9][10]

Adrasteia was also an epithet applied to Rhea herself, to Cybele, and to Ananke, as her daughter.[11] As with Adrasteia, these four were especially associated with the dispensation of rewards and punishments.

Adrasteia was also the name of a mountain goddess, worshipped in hellenised Phrygia (north-western Turkey), perhaps derived from a local Anatolian mountain goddess. Her name is found in inscriptions in Greece from around 400 BC as a defender of the righteous.[12]

In The Dialogue of the Sea-Gods, Poseidon remarks to a Nereid that Adrasteia is a great deal stronger than Nephele, who was unable to prevent the fall of her daughter Helle from the ram of the Golden Fleece.[13]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Tripp, s.v. Adrasteia, p. 13; Smith, s.v. Adrasteia 1; Apollodorus, 1.1.6; Hyginus, Fabulae 182 (Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 158).
  2. ^ Gantz, p. 42; Hard, p. 75.
  3. ^ Callimachus, Hymn 1 to Zeus 46–48.
  4. ^ Hard, p. 197; Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 3.132–136.
  5. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.67.
  6. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 182 (Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 158).
  7. ^ Margareta Lindgren. (1973). The People of Pylos: Prosopographical and Methodological Studies in the Pylos Archives: part II. Uppsala.
  8. ^ Strabo, xiii, p. 588.
  9. ^ Valeken, ad Heroditus, iii, 40.
  10. ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867), "Adrasteia (2)", in Smith, William (ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1, Boston, p. 21
  11. ^ Abril Cultural, ed. (1973). Dicionário de Mitologia Greco-Romana (in Portuguese). Editora Victor Civita. p. 134. OCLC 45781956.
  12. ^ Jordan, s.v. Adeastea, p. 4.
  13. ^ Lucian of Samosata, Dialogue of the Sea-Gods, 9.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

  • Guide to the Pergamon Museum By Königliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany).Pergamon-Museum