Acer campestre, known as the field maple, is a flowering plant species in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae. It is native to much of Europe, the British Isles, southwest Asia from Turkey to the Caucasus, and north Africa in the Atlas Mountains. It has been widely planted, and is introduced outside its native range in Europe and areas of USA and Western Australia with suitable climate.
|Field maple foliage and fruit|
It is a deciduous tree reaching 15–25 m (49–82 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in diameter, with finely fissured, often somewhat corky bark. The shoots are brown, with dark brown winter buds. The leaves are in opposite pairs, 5–16 cm (2.0–6.3 in) long (including the 3–9 cm (1.2–3.5 in) petiole) and 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) broad, with five blunt, rounded lobes with a smooth margin. Usually monoecious, the flowers are produced in spring at the same time as the leaves open, yellow-green, in erect clusters 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) across, and are insect-pollinated. The fruit is a samara with two winged achenes aligned at 180°, each achene is 8–10 mm (0.31–0.39 in) wide, flat, with a 2 cm (0.79 in) wing.
- A. c. var. campestre - downy fruit
- A. c. var. leiocarpum (Opiz) Wallr. (syn. A. c. subsp. leiocarpum) - hairless fruit
The native range of field maple includes much of Europe, including Denmark, Poland and Belarus, England north to southern Scotland (where it is the only native maple), southwest Asia from Turkey to the Caucasus, and north Africa in the Atlas Mountains. In many areas, the original native range is obscured by widespread planting and introductions. In North America it is known as hedge maple and in Australia, it is sometimes called common maple. In Nottinghamshire, England it was known locally as dog oak.
Field maple is an intermediate species in the ecological succession of disturbed areas; it typically is not among the first trees to colonise a freshly disturbed area, but instead seeds in under the existing vegetation. It is very shade-tolerant during the initial stages of its life, but it has higher light requirements during its seed-bearing years. It exhibits rapid growth initially, but is eventually overtaken and replaced by other trees as the forest matures. It is most commonly found on neutral to alkaline soils, but more rarely on acidic soil.
Diseases include a leaf spot fungus Didymosporina aceris, a mildew Uncinula bicornis, a canker Nectria galligena, and verticillium wilt Verticillium alboatrum. The leaves are also sometimes damaged by gall mites in the genus Aceria, and the aphid Periphyllus villosus.
The field maple is widely grown as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens. The wood is white, hard and strong, and used for furniture, flooring, wood turning and musical instruments, though the small size of the tree and its relatively slow growth make it an unimportant wood.
A. campestre (and the similar A. monspessulanum) are popular among bonsai enthusiasts. The dwarf cultivar 'Microphyllum' is especially useful in this regard. A. campestre bonsai have an appearance distinct from those selected from some other maples such as A. palmatum with more frilly, translucent, leaves. The shrubby habit and smallish leaves of A. campestre respond well to techniques encouraging ramification and leaf reduction.
- Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website Version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since].
- "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
- Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
- Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
- Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Acer campestre Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
- "Acer campestre". Flora Europaea. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
- Flora of NW Europe: Acer campestre[permanent dead link]
- Den virtuella floran: Acer campestre distribution map
- Nagy, L.; Ducci, F. (2004). "Acer campestre - Field maple" (PDF). EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use: 6 p.
- "Online atlas of the British and Irish flora, Acer campestre (Field maple)". Biological Records Centre and Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
- "Acer campestre". USDA Plants Profile. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
- "Acer campestre". Ohio State University. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
- Department of Agriculture, Western Australia: Pests and Diseases Image Library Archived 2008-08-19 at the Wayback Machine
- Wright, Joseph. The English dialect dictionary. 6. London: Oxford University Press. p. 109.
- "Field maple images and diseases". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-08-29.
- "Field maple_Woodland Trust". Archived from the original on 2010-09-13. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- Trans. and Proc. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 36: 203-225 Plants naturalised in the County of Ashburton
- RHS Plant Selector Acer campestre AGM / RHS Gardening
- van Gelderen, C.J.; van Gelderen, D.M. (1999). Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia.
- "A. campestre". Bonsai Club International. Archived from the original on November 11, 2006. Retrieved November 26, 2006.
- D'Cruz, Mark. "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Acer campestre". Ma-Ke Bonsai. Retrieved April 15, 2011.