Abel equation

The Abel equation, named after Niels Henrik Abel, is a type of functional equation which can be written in the form

or, equivalently,

and controls the iteration of   f.


These equations are equivalent. Assuming that α is an invertible function, the second equation can be written as


Taking x = α−1(y), the equation can be written as


For a function f(x) assumed to be known, the task is to solve the functional equation for the function α−1h, possibly satisfying additional requirements, such as α−1(0) = 1.

The change of variables sα(x) = Ψ(x), for a real parameter s, brings Abel's equation into the celebrated Schröder's equation, Ψ(f(x)) = s Ψ(x) .

The further change F(x) = exp(sα(x)) into Böttcher's equation, F(f(x)) = F(x)s.

The Abel equation is a special case of (and easily generalizes to) the translation equation,[1]


e.g., for  ,

 .     (Observe ω(x,0) = x.)

The Abel function α(x) further provides the canonical coordinate for Lie advective flows (one parameter Lie groups).


Initially, the equation in the more general form [2][3] was reported. Even in the case of a single variable, the equation is non-trivial, and admits special analysis.[4][5][6]

In the case of a linear transfer function, the solution is expressible compactly. [7]

Special casesEdit

The equation of tetration is a special case of Abel's equation, with f = exp.

In the case of an integer argument, the equation encodes a recurrent procedure, e.g.,


and so on,



  • formal solution : unique (to a constant)[8] (Not sure, because if   is solution, then  , where  , is also solution[9].)
  • analytic solutions (Fatou coordinates) = approximation by asymptotic expansion of a function defined by power series in the sectors around parabolic fixed point[10]
  • Existence : Abel equation has at least one solution on   if and only if  , where  , n times.[11]

Fatou coordinates describe local dynamics of discrete dynamical system near a parabolic fixed point.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Aczél, János, (1966): Lectures on Functional Equations and Their Applications, Academic Press, reprinted by Dover Publications, ISBN 0486445232 .
  2. ^ Abel, N.H. (1826). "Untersuchung der Functionen zweier unabhängig veränderlichen Größen x und y, wie f(x, y), welche die Eigenschaft haben, ..." Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik. 1: 11–15.
  3. ^ A. R. Schweitzer (1912). "Theorems on functional equations". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 19 (2): 51–106. doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1912-02281-4.
  4. ^ Korkine, A (1882). "Sur un problème d'interpolation", Bull Sci Math & Astron 6(1) 228—242. online
  5. ^ G. Belitskii; Yu. Lubish (1999). "The real-analytic solutions of the Abel functional equations" (PDF). Studia Mathematica. 134 (2): 135–141.
  6. ^ Jitka Laitochová (2007). "Group iteration for Abel's functional equation". Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems. 1 (1): 95–102. doi:10.1016/j.nahs.2006.04.002.
  7. ^ G. Belitskii; Yu. Lubish (1998). "The Abel equation and total solvability of linear functional equations" (PDF). Studia Mathematica. 127: 81–89.
  8. ^ Classifications of parabolic germs and fractal properties of orbits by Maja Resman, University of Zagreb, Croatia
  10. ^ Dudko, Artem (2012). Dynamics of holomorphic maps: Resurgence of Fatou coordinates, and Poly-time computability of Julia sets Ph.D. Thesis
  11. ^ R. Tambs Lyche,Sur l'équation fonctionnelle d'Abel, University of Trondlyim, Norvege