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Geographic distribution of keyboards in Europe:
  QWERTY
  QWERTZ
  AZERTY
  National layout (Turkey FGĞIOD, Latvia ŪGJRMV, Lithuania ĄŽERTY)
  Non-Latin alphabet
AZERTY layout used in France

AZERTY (/əˈzɜːrti/) is a specific layout for the characters of the Latin alphabet on typewriter keys and computer keyboards. The layout takes its name from the first six letters to appear on the first row of alphabetical keys; that is, (A Z E R T Y). Similar to the German QWERTZ layout, it is modelled on the English QWERTY layout. It is used by most French and all Flemish speakers based in Europe, although France and Belgium each have their own national variations on the layout. Luxembourg and Switzerland use the Swiss QWERTZ keyboard. Most of the residents of Quebec, the mainly French-speaking province of Canada, use a QWERTY keyboard that has been adapted to the French language such as the Multilingual Standard keyboard CAN/CSA Z243.200-92 which is stipulated by the government of Quebec and the Government of Canada.[1][2][3]

The competing layouts devised for French (e.g., the ZHJAYSCPG layout put forward in 1907, Claude Marsan's 1976 layout, the 2002 Dvorak-fr, and the 2005 Bépo layout) have obtained only limited recognition.

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
ZHJAY keyboard layout for French typewriters, which failed to compete with the standard AZERTY layout.

The AZERTY layout appeared in France in the last decade of the 19th century as a variation on American QWERTY typewriters. Its exact origin is unknown. At the start of the 20th century, the French “ZHJAY” layout, created by Albert Navarre, failed to break into the market because secretaries were already accustomed to the QWERTY and AZERTY layouts.[4][5]

In France the AZERTY layout is the de facto norm for keyboards, though it is not an official standard. However, in 1976, a QWERTY layout adapted to the French language was put forward as an experimental standard (NF XP E55-060) by the French national organization for standardization. This standard made provision for a temporary adaptation period during which the letters A, Q, Z and W could be positioned as in the traditional AZERTY layout.

As of January 2016, the French Culture Ministry was looking to replace the AZERTY layout with one that will decrease the chance of typing mistakes.[6]

The AZERTY layout is used on Belgian keyboards, although some non-alphabetic symbols are positioned differently.


In FranceEdit

AZERTY under LinuxEdit

In X11, the window system common to many flavors of UNIX, the keyboard interface is completely configurable allowing each user to assign different functions to each key in line with their personal preferences. For example, specific combinations of Alt Gr key could be assigned to many other characters.

Layout of the French keyboard under Microsoft WindowsEdit

Missing elementsEdit

  • Ever since the AZERTY keyboard was devised, a single key has been dedicated to the letter (ù), which occurs in only one word (où [where]); the œ is completely unrepresented, despite the fact that it is an integral part of the French spelling system and occurs in several words.
  • æ, as in Lætitia [girl's name] or ex æquo [dead-heat].
  • The non-breaking space, which prevents having punctuation characters in isolation at the ends or beginnings of lines.
  • Guillemets – French language opening and closing quotation marks, « and ».
  • The capital letters, É, Ç, Œ … (in the word Œdipe [Oedipus], for example), are available neither on the typewriter itself, nor using the operating system mentioned earlier.

It is possible to fill in these gaps by installing a keyboard driver that has been specially enriched for the French language.[7]

One can also use WinCompose in order to easily write all characters, the character Ç could be written by pressing ⎄ Compose , C or the character « with ⎄ Compose < <, there is also an option to allow to write accentuated capitals with ⇪ Caps Lock such that Ç is writable with ⇪ Caps Lock ç.

Some word-processing software packages sometimes address some of these gaps. The non-breaking space can be obtained by pressing the Ctrl key, followed by a space, in a word-processing package such as OpenOffice.org Writer, or by using Ctrl + Maj [Caps] + Espace [Spacebar] in Microsoft Word.

Apart from these gaps, the French AZERTY layout has some strange features which are still present in the Microsoft Windows Vista operating system:

  • The combination Maj + ² does not generate any character at all.
  • The presence of two "^" (one of which is a dead key and is located at the right of the "p", while the other – on the ç9 key — is not).
  • When a ¦ is required, a | is generated.
  • Typing a period or numerals requires pressing Shift, whereas some rarer characters (ù, the semicolon) do not. This has led to drives to reform the AZERTY keyboard (chiefly by doing away with the ù, which may be typed using AltGr+è and u anyway, and/or swapping the period and semicolon), although to date this has not been successful.

Government criticismEdit

As of January 2016 the French Culture Ministry is looking to replace the AZERTY layout with one that will decrease the chance of typing mistakes.[6][8] This project, led by the French national organization for standardization AFNOR, should release both an improved AZERTY and a BÉPO layout. Initially due in January 2018, the standard is now scheduled for June of that year.[9]


VariantsEdit

The AZERTY layout is used in France, Belgium and some African countries. It differs from the QWERTY layout thus:

  • A and Q are swapped,
  • Z and W are swapped,
  • M is moved to the right of L (where colon/semicolon is on a US keyboard),
  • The digits 0 to 9 are on the same keys, but to be typed the shift key must be pressed. The unshifted positions are used for accented characters,
  • Caps lock is replaced by Shift lock, thus affecting non-letter keys as well. However, there is an ongoing evolution towards a Caps lock key instead of a Shift lock.

The French and Belgian AZERTY keyboards also have special characters used in the French language, such as ç, à, é and è, and other characters such as &, ", ' and §, all located under the numbers.

FrenchEdit

 
French keyboard layout

Some French people use the Canadian Multilingual standard keyboard.

The Portuguese (Portugal) keyboard layout may also be preferred, as it provides all the French accents (acute, grave, diaeresis, circumflex, cedilla, including on capital letters that are not all possible with a basic French standard layout, and also the French quotation marks or guillemets, «»). Furthermore, its dead-letter option for all the accent keys allows for easy input of all the possibilities in French and many other languages (áàäãâéèëêíìïîñóòöõôúùüû). 'ç' is, however, a separate key (but only as a lowercase letter in the basic French standard layout).

The US-International keyboard may also used for the same reason (notably by programmers as it allows easier input of ASCII characters, provided that they are trained to a QWERTY layout rather than the most common AZERTY layouts available in most computer shops, including online). An alternative (extremely rarely found) to AZERTY is the Bépo layout : it's not available on any notebook, but may be used by adding an external keyboard, bought separately from some specialized shops.

However the most common layouts available as an option in computer shops and that are not using the standard French layout is still the basic US layout, plus the QWERTY-based layouts used for Chinese and Vietnamese (that you can find in Parisian shops where there's a large enough Asian community, many of these shops being owned by people of Chinese or South-East Asian origin), or Arabic. Computer providers have also sold computers with the Belgian French AZERTY layout to French universities and schools. Most standard national layouts used in the world, and all layouts used in the European Union can easily be bought in online shops within the European Union as the old standard French keyboard is no longer mandatory.

AppleEdit

 
Apple French keyboard layout

Apple's keyboards use the same AZERTY layout in both France and Belgium.[10] Based on the Belgian version, the most notable differences are the locations for the @-sign and €-sign, among others. OS X also supports the standard French layout for non-Apple keyboards; the standard Belgian layout, however, is available through third-party support only.[11]

ArabicEdit

There is also an Arabic variant of the AZERTY keyboard.[12] It is especially used in the African countries Algeria, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia and in Arab communities in French-speaking countries to be able to type both in Arabic and in French. See Keyboard layout and Arabic keyboard for more informations.

Tamazight (Berber)Edit

 
Tamazight (Berber) keyboard layout for Latin script
 
Tamazight (International) keyboard layout

The Tamazight (Latin) standards-compliant layout is optimised for a wide range of Tamazight (Berber) language variants – including Tuareg variants – rather than French, though French can still be typed quickly. It installs as "Tamazight_L" and can be used both on the French locale and with Tamazight locales.

QWERTY and QWERTZ adaptations of the layout are available for the physical keyboards used by major Amazigh (Berber) communities around the world.

Other layouts exist for closer backwards compatibility with the French layout. They are non-standards-compliant but convenient, allowing typing in Tifinagh script without switching layout:

  • Tamazight (International) extends the French layout with Tamazight (Berber), and offers secondary Tifinagh script access by deadkey. It installs as "Tamazight (Agraghlan)" or "Français+" and is available from the official site of the Algerian High Council for Amazighity (HCA).
  • Tamazight (International)+ is optimised for Tamazight (Berber), but retains close French compatibility and provides easy typing in Tifinagh script by Caps Lock. It installs as "Tamazight (Agraghlan)+" or "Tamazight_LF".

All the above layouts were designed by the Universal Amazigh Keyboard Project and are available from there.[13]

WolofEdit

Wolof keyboards also use AZERTY and are supported by Microsoft Windows (Windows 7 and later only).[14]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Office québécois de la langue française, Le clavier de votre ordinateur est-il normalisé?.
  2. ^ Services gouvernementaux du Québec, Standard sur le clavier québécois Archived 2011-06-26 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Alain LaBonté, 2001, FAQ. La démystification du clavier québécois (norme CAN/CSA Z243.200-92) Archived 2011-07-13 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Martin, Henri-Jean (1995). The history and power of writing. University of Chicago Press. p. 608. ISBN 0-226-50836-6.
  5. ^ Gardey, Delphine. "La standardisation d'une pratique technique: la dactylographie (1883–1930)". Réseaux. 16 (87).
  6. ^ a b "France wants to fix the terrible AZERTY keyboard". Engadget. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
  7. ^ Denis Liégeois, pilote de clavier azerty enrichi pour Windows.
  8. ^ Schofield, Hugh (21 January 2016). "Inside Europe Blog: Is France's unloved AZERTY keyboard heading for the scrapheap?". BBC News Online. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  9. ^ https://norminfo.afnor.org/norme/pr-nf-z71-300/interfaces-utilisateurs-dispositions-de-clavier-bureautique-francais/113295
  10. ^ "How to identify keyboard localizations". Apple Inc. Retrieved 2015-04-22.
  11. ^ "Belgian (Non-Apple) Keyboard Layout". El Tramo. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
  12. ^ "Arabic French 102 Keyboard Layout". Microsoft. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  13. ^ "SourceForge.net: Anasiw amaziɣ ameɣradan – Project Web Hosting – Open Source Software". sourceforge.net.
  14. ^ "Microsoft Keyboard Layouts". Microsoft. Retrieved 26 May 2017.

External linksEdit