Guillemet

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Guillemets (/ˈɡɪləmɛt/,[1][2] also UK: /ˈɡm/,[3] US: /ˌɡ(j)əˈm, ˌɡɪləˈmɛt/,[4] French: [ɡijmɛ]), angle quotes,[citation needed] are a pair of punctuation marks in the form of sideways double chevrons (« and »), used as quotation marks in a number of languages. Sometimes a single guillemet ( or ) is used for another purpose. They are not conventionally used in the English language.[citation needed]

« »
Guillemets
In UnicodeU+00AB « LEFTT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK (HTML « · «)
U+00BB » RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK (HTML » · »)

TerminologyEdit

Guillemets may also be called angle, Latin, or French quotes / quotation marks. Unicode exists for single and double guillemets.

Guillemet is a diminutive of the French name Guillaume (equivalent to English William), apparently after the French printer and punchcutter Guillaume Le Bé (1525–98),[5][6] though he did not invent the symbols: they first appear in a 1527 book printed by Josse Bade.[7] Some languages derive their word for guillemets analogously: the Irish term is Liamóg, from Liam 'William' and a diminutive suffix.

ShapeEdit

Guillemets are smaller than lesser-than and greater-than signs, which in turn are smaller than angle brackets.

 
Guillemets in fonts Helvetica Neue, Arial, Times New Roman, Calibri, Cambria, DejaVu Serif and Courier New. Second row: italics
 
Angle brackets, lesser-/greater-than signs and single guillemets in fonts Cambria, DejaVu Serif, Andron Mega Corpus, Andika and Everson Mono

UsesEdit

As quotation marksEdit

Guillemets are used pointing outwards («like this») to indicate speech in these languages and regions:

Guillemets are used pointing inwards (»like this«) to indicate speech in these languages:

  • Croatian (marked usage; „...” prevails)
  • Czech (marked usage; „...“ prevails)
  • Danish („...“ is also used)
  • Esperanto (very uncommon)
  • German (except in Switzerland; preferred for printed matters; „...“ is preferred in handwriting)
  • Hungarian (only used „inside a section »as a secondary quote« marked by the usual quotes“ like this)
  • Polish (used to indicate a quote inside a quote as defined by dictionaries; more common usage in practice. See also: Polish orthography)
  • Serbian (marked usage; „...“ prevails)
  • Slovak (marked usage; „...“ prevails)
  • Slovene („...“ and "..." also used)
  • Swedish (this style, and »...» are rarely used; ”...” is the common and correct form)

Guillemets are used pointing right (»like this») to indicate speech in these languages:

  • Finnish (”...” is the common and correct form)
  • Swedish (this style and «...» are rarely used; ”...” is the common and correct form)

Other usesEdit

In Quebec, the right-hand guillemet (»), called a guillemet itératif, is used as a ditto mark.[8]

Keyboard entryEdit

These characters are standard on French and French Canadian keyboards and some others.

Macintosh users can together press ⌥ Opt+\ to type "«" and ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+\ to type "»" - also, ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+3 to type "‹" and ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+4 to type "›". This applies to all English-language keyboard layouts supplied with the Apple operating system, e.g. "Australian", "British", "Canadian", "Irish", "Irish Extended", "U.S." and "U.S. Extended". Other language layouts may differ. In French-language keyboard layouts ⌥ Opt+7 and ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+7 can be used. On Norwegian keyboards, ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+v for "«", and ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+b for "»", can be used.

For users of Unix-like operating systems running the X Window System, creation of the guillemet depends on a number of factors including the keyboard layout that is in effect. For example, with US International or UK Extended layout selected, a user would type Alt Gr+[ for "«" and Alt Gr+] for "»". On some configurations, such as ChromeOS, they can be written by typing "«" as Alt Gr+z and "»" as Alt Gr+x. With the compose key, press Compose+<+< and Compose+>+> and press Compose+.+< and Compose+.+>.

Windows users can type 
« Alt + 0171
» Alt + 0187
Alt + 0139
Alt + 0155

EncodingEdit

Unicode Windows code pages Character entity reference Compose key
Name hex dec hex dec
« LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK U+00AB 0171 AB 171 &laquo; Compose+<+<
SINGLE LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK U+2039 8249 8B 139 &lsaquo; Compose+.+<
» RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK U+00BB 0187 BB 187 &raquo; Compose+>+>
SINGLE RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK U+203A 8250 9B 155 &rsaquo; Compose+.+>

Despite their names, the characters are mirrored when used in right-to-left contexts.

Double guillemets are present also in several of ISO 8859 code pages (namely: -1, -7, -8, -9, -13, -15, -16) on the same code points.

UMLEdit

Guillemets are used in Unified Modeling Language to indicate a stereotype of a standard element.

Mail mergeEdit

Microsoft Word uses guillemets when creating mail merges. Microsoft use these punctuation marks to denote a mail merge "field", such as «Title», «AddressBlock» or «GreetingLine». Then on the final printout, the guillemet-marked tags are replaced by the corresponding data outlined for that field by the user.

DisambiguationEdit

Guillemet vs. guillemotEdit

In Adobe Systems font software, its file format specifications, and in all fonts derived from these that contain the characters, the word is incorrectly spelled "guillemot" (a malapropism: guillemot is actually a species of seabird) in the names of the two glyphs: guillemotleft and guillemotright. Adobe acknowledges the error.[9]

X WindowsEdit

Likewise, X11 mistakenly calls them "XK_guillemotleft" and "XK_guillemotright" in the file keysymdef.h.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "guillemet". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  2. ^ "Guillemet". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  3. ^ "guillemet". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  4. ^ "guillemet". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  5. ^ Character design standards – Punctuation 1
  6. ^ decodeunicode.org . decode . LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
  7. ^ Trésor de la langue française informatisé – guillemet
  8. ^ "Banque de dépannage linguistique: Guillemets itératifs" [Linguistic help desk: Iterative quotes] (in French). Office québécois de la langue française. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  9. ^ Adobe Systems Inc. (1999). PostScript Language Reference: The Red Book (3rd ed.). Addison Wesley. Character set endnote 3, page 783. ISBN 978-0-201-37922-8. OCLC 40927139.

External linksEdit