7119 Hiera (// HIRE-ə), provisional designation 1989 AV2, is a large Jupiter trojan and potentially slow rotator from the Greek camp, approximately 70 kilometers (43 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 11 January 1989, by American astronomer couple Carolyn and Eugene Shoemaker at Palomar Observatory in California. The dark Jovian asteroid belongs to the 60 largest Jupiter trojans and has an estimated rotation period of at least 400 hours. It was named for the Amazon Hiera, who fought against the Greeks in the Trojan War. As with 624 Hektor, the naming for this Jovian asteroid was placed into the wrong camp.
Hubble Space Telescope image of Hiera taken in 2013
|Discovered by||C. Shoemaker|
|Discovery site||Palomar Obs.|
|Discovery date||11 January 1989|
|MPC designation||(7119) Hiera|
|Hiera (Greek mythology)|
|Jupiter trojan |
Greek  · background 
|Orbital characteristics |
|Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)|
|Uncertainty parameter 0|
|Observation arc||29.62 yr (10,817 d)|
|11.69 yr (4,271 d)|
|0° 5m 3.48s / day|
|Jupiter MOID||0.1936 AU|
|400 h (or longer)|
V–I = 0.950±0.107
Orbit and classificationEdit
Hiera is a dark Jovian asteroid orbiting in the leading Greek camp at Jupiter's L4 Lagrangian point, 60° ahead of its orbit in a 1:1 resonance . It is also a non-family asteroid in the Jovian background population.
It orbits the Sun at a distance of 4.6–5.7 AU once every 11 years and 8 months (4,271 days; semi-major axis of 5.15 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.10 and an inclination of 19° with respect to the ecliptic. A first precovery was taken at the discovering observatory in November 1987, extending the body's observation arc by 14 months prior to its official discovery observation at Palomar.
Suspected slow rotatorEdit
In June 2009, Hiera was observed by Italian astronomer Stefano Mottola at the Spanish Calar Alto Observatory during 5 consecutive nights. Although a lightcurve could not be obtained and a systematic instrumental error could not be ruled out, the body displayed a slowly, ever decreasing brightness of 0.1 in magnitude, which would translate into a rotation period of at least 400 hours (U=1). This would make Hiera a slow rotator. As of 2018, no secure period has been obtained.
Diameter and albedoEdit
According to the surveys carried out by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, and the Japanese Akari satellite, Hiera measures between 59.15 and 77.29 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.036 and 0.067. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0398 and a diameter of 76.45 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 9.7.
This minor planet was named after Hiera from Greek mythology, a female general in the Trojan war. However, her name was removed from Homer's Iliad, as to not diminish the greatness of Helen of Troy, the daughter of Zeus and cause for the Trojan war (also see 101 Helena). The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 4 May 1999 (M.P.C. 34625). Although the asteroid resides in the Greek camp, the citation describes Hiera as a general of the Mysians, who fought on the Trojan, not the Greek side in the Trojan War.
- "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 7119 Hiera (1989 AV2)" (2017-07-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(7119) Hiera". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (7119) Hiera. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 577. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_6297. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
- "7119 Hiera (1989 AV2)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "List of Jupiter Trojans". Minor Planet Center. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "Asteroid (7119) Hiera – Proper Elements". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R. (November 2012). "WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojan Population: Taxonomy". The Astrophysical Journal. 759 (1): 10. arXiv:1209.1549. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759...49G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/49. Retrieved 15 June 2018. (online catalog)
- Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System – IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 15 June 2018. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
- Mottola, Stefano; Di Martino, Mario; Erikson, Anders; Gonano-Beurer, Maria; Carbognani, Albino; Carsenty, Uri; et al. (May 2011). "Rotational Properties of Jupiter Trojans. I. Light Curves of 80 Objects". The Astronomical Journal. 141 (5): 32. Bibcode:2011AJ....141..170M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/141/5/170.
- "LCDB Data for (7119) Hiera". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB), query form (info)
- Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books
- Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets (5001)-(10000) – Minor Planet Center
- Asteroid 7119 Hiera at the Small Bodies Data Ferret
- 7119 Hiera at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site
- 7119 Hiera at the JPL Small-Body Database