624 Hektor /ˈhɛktər/ is the largest Jupiter trojan and the namesake of the Hektor family, with a highly elongated shape equivalent in volume to a sphere of approximately 225 to 250 kilometers diameter. It was discovered on 10 February 1907, by astronomer August Kopff at Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany, and named after the Trojan prince Hector, from Greek mythology.[1][2] It has one small 12-kilometer sized satellite, Skamandrios, discovered in 2006.[7]

624 Hektor
Hektor & Skamandrios 2006 Jul 16.PNG
624 Hektor and its moon Skamandrios
Discovery [1]
Discovered byA. Kopff
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date10 February 1907
Designations
(624) Hektor
Pronunciation/ˈhɛktər/[6]
Named after
Hector (Greek mythology)[2]
1907 XM; 1948 VD
Jupiter trojan[1][3] · Hektor[4]
(Greek camp)[5]
AdjectivesHektorean or Hektorian
(both /hɛkˈtɔːriən/)[6]
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc111.28 yr (40,646 d)
Aphelion5.3824 AU
Perihelion5.1319 AU
5.2571 AU
Eccentricity0.0238
12.05 yr (4,403 d)
136.09°
0° 4m 54.48s / day
Inclination18.166°
342.79°
185.22°
Known satellites1
Jupiter MOID0.2752 AU
TJupiter2.8990
Physical characteristics
Dimensions403 km × 201 km (derived)[7]
370 km × 195 km × 195 km[8]
Mean diameter
250±26 km[7]
(if bilobe: 256±12 km)[7]
225 km[3]
147±2 km[9]
227±15 km[10]
231±4 km[11]
Mass(7.9±1.4)×1018 kg[7]
(9.95±0.12)×1018 kg[10]
Mean density
1.0±0.3 g/cm3[7]
1.63±0.32 g/cm3[10]
2.43±0.35 g/cm3[12]
6.9205 hours (0.28835 d)[7]
0.025[3]
0.034±0.001[11]
0.107±0.011[9]
D (Tholen)[3]
13.79 to 15.26[citation needed]
7.20[9] · 7.3[3] · 7.49[11]
0.078" to 0.048"[citation needed]

DescriptionEdit

Hektor is a D-type asteroid, dark and reddish in colour. It lies in Jupiter's leading Lagrangian point, L4, called the Greek camp after one of the two sides in the legendary Trojan War. Hektor is named after the Trojan hero Hektor and is thus one of two trojan asteroids that is "misplaced" in the wrong camp (the other one being 617 Patroclus in the Trojan camp).

Contact-binary hypothesisEdit

 
Modelled shape of 624 Hektor from its light curve. Note that Skamandrios is not part of this model.

Hektor is one of the most elongated bodies of its size in the Solar System, being approximately 403 km in its longest dimension, but averaging only around 201 km in its other dimensions, with a total volume equivalent to an approx 250 km diameter sphere, and an estimated mass of 7.9×1018 kg (thus density of 1.0g/cm3). It is thought that Hektor might be a contact binary (two asteroids joined by gravitational attraction) like 216 Kleopatra, composed of two more rounded lobes of 220 and 183 km mean diameters.[7] Hubble Space Telescope observations of Hektor in 1993 did not show an obvious bilobate shape because of a limited angular resolution. On 17 July 2006, the Keck 10-meter-II-telescope and its laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) system indicated a bilobate shape for Hektor,[13] which was reinforced by later studies that, together with multiple historical lightcurves, suggest a rotation period of 6.9205 hours.[7]

Hektor is, so far, one of only three known binary trojan asteroids in the L4 point (the others being 16974 Iphthime and 3548 Eurybates) and the first known trojan with a satellite companion. 617 Patroclus, another large trojan asteroid located in the L5 point, is composed of two almost equal-sized components.[13] There are now a further two known binary asteroids in the L5 point, (17365) 1978 VF11 and 29314 Eurydamas.[14]

SatelliteEdit

Skamandrios
Discovery[7]
Discovered byMarchis et al.
Discovery date2006 July 16
Designations
Designation
Hektor I
Pronunciation/skəˈmændriəs/
Named after
Scamandrius
S/2006 (624) 1
AdjectivesSkamandrian
Orbital characteristics[7]
623.5±10 km
Eccentricity0.31±0.03
2.9651±0.0003 days
Inclination50.1°±1.1° (to primary)
166.2°±3.2° (in EQJ2000)
170.7°±6.1° (in EQJ2000)
113.4°±1.4° (in EQJ2000)
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
12±3 km (assuming composition of primary)

A 10–15-km-diameter moon, named Skamandrios, was detected orbiting 624 Hektor in 2006 with a semi-major axis of 623.5 km and an orbital period of 2.9651 days (71.162 hours).[15][7] It was confirmed with Keck observations in November 2011,[16] and was then named on 12 March 2017.[17] No mass estimate was provided, but the equivalent volume suggests an approximate mass of 8.74×1014 kg if the two bodies are of the same density. Its orbit is highly inclined and eccentric, and it is likely that its rotation is chaotic. Marchis et al. (2014) speculate that it was ejected after a low-velocity collision produced the bilobed primary. The newly merged primary could have spun fast enough to be unstable and shed some mass.[7]

StudiesEdit

624 Hektor was in a 2003 study of asteroids using the Hubble FGS.[18] Asteroids studied include 63 Ausonia, 15 Eunomia, 43 Ariadne, 44 Nysa, and 624 Hektor.[18] It has since been revisited several times, particularly as a test of the upgraded resolution of the Keck Observatory's LGS Adaptive Optics system which allowed Earth-based observation of binary asteroids for the first time.[13][7] The asteroid has also been imaged by the NEOWISE and AKARI all-sky studies, which reported highly divergent size estimates of 147.4[9] and 231.0 kilometers [11] respectively, although this mostly arises from large differences in estimated albedo (approximately 0.107 for NEOWISE, and a much lower 0.034 for AKARI) rather than its absolute magnitude being measured only briefly at opposing extremes of a widely varying cycle such as thought to account for the uncertainty over the size of 1173 Anchises (624 Hektor's own abs. mag. recorded as a relatively similar 7.20 and 7.49 by the two studies). It is, unusually, not included in the published IRAS results, and is therefore the largest Jupiter trojan to be omitted from that study.

100+ largest Jupiter trojans
Largest Jupiter Trojans by survey(A)
(mean-diameter in kilometers; YoD: Year of Discovery)
Designation H WISE IRAS Akari Ln RP V–I YoD Ref
624 Hektor 7.2 225 233 230.99 L4 6.92 0.930 1907 list
617 Patroclus 8.19 140.362 140.92 140.85 L5 102.80 0.830 1906 list
911 Agamemnon 7.89 131.038 166.66 185.30 L4 6.59 0.980 1919 list
588 Achilles 8.67 130.099 135.47 133.22 L4 7.31 0.940 1906 list
3451 Mentor 8.4 126.288 116.30 117.91 L5 7.70 0.770 1984 list
3317 Paris 8.3 118.790 116.26 120.45 L5 7.09 0.950 1984 list
1867 Deiphobus 8.3 118.220 122.67 131.31 L5 58.66 0.930 1971 list
1172 Äneas 8.33 118.020 142.82 148.66 L5 8.71 0.950 1930 list
1437 Diomedes 8.3 117.786 164.31 172.60 L4 24.49 0.810 1937 list
1143 Odysseus 7.93 114.624 125.64 130.81 L4 10.11 0.860 1930 list
2241 Alcathous 8.64 113.682 114.63 118.87 L5 7.69 0.940 1979 list
659 Nestor 8.99 112.320 108.87 107.06 L4 15.98 0.790 1908 list
3793 Leonteus 8.7 112.046 86.26 87.58 L4 5.62 0.780 1985 list
3063 Makhaon 8.4 111.655 116.14 114.34 L4 8.64 0.830 1983 list
1583 Antilochus 8.6 108.842 101.62 111.69 L4 31.54 0.950 1950 list
884 Priamus 8.81 101.093 96.29 119.99 L5 6.86 0.900 1917 list
1208 Troilus 8.99 100.477 103.34 111.36 L5 56.17 0.740 1931 list
1173 Anchises 8.89 99.549 126.27 120.49 L5 11.60 0.780 1930 list
2207 Antenor 8.89 97.658 85.11 91.32 L5 7.97 0.950 1977 list
2363 Cebriones 9.11 95.976 81.84 84.61 L5 20.05 0.910 1977 list
4063 Euforbo 8.7 95.619 102.46 106.38 L4 8.85 0.950 1989 list
2357 Phereclos 8.94 94.625 94.90 98.45 L5 14.39 0.960 1981 list
4709 Ennomos 8.5 91.433 80.85 80.03 L5 12.28 0.690 1988 list
2797 Teucer 8.7 89.430 111.14 113.99 L4 10.15 0.920 1981 list
2920 Automedon 8.8 88.574 111.01 113.11 L4 10.21 0.950 1981 list
15436 Dexius 9.1 87.646 85.71 78.63 L4 8.97 0.870 1998 list
3596 Meriones 9.2 87.380 75.09 73.28 L4 12.96 0.830 1985 list
2893 Peiroos 9.23 86.884 87.46 86.76 L5 8.96 0.950 1975 list
4086 Podalirius 9.1 85.495 86.89 85.98 L4 10.43 0.870 1985 list
4060 Deipylos 9.3 84.043 79.21 86.79 L4 9.30 0.760 1987 list
1404 Ajax 9.3 83.990 81.69 96.34 L4 29.38 0.960 1936 list
4348 Poulydamas 9.5 82.032 70.08 87.51 L5 9.91 0.840 1988 list
5144 Achates 9.0 80.958 91.91 89.85 L5 5.96 0.920 1991 list
4833 Meges 8.9 80.165 87.33 89.39 L4 14.25 0.940 1989 list
2223 Sarpedon 9.41 77.480 94.63 108.21 L5 22.74 0.880 1977 list
4489 Dracius 9.0 76.595 92.93 95.02 L4 12.58 0.950 1988 list
2260 Neoptolemus 9.31 76.435 71.65 81.28 L4 8.18 0.950 1975 list
5254 Ulysses 9.2 76.147 78.34 80.00 L4 28.72 0.970 1986 list
3708 Socus 9.3 75.661 79.59 76.75 L5 6.55 0.980 1974 list
2674 Pandarus 9.1 74.267 98.10 101.72 L5 8.48 1.000 1982 list
3564 Talthybius 9.4 73.730 68.92 74.11 L4 40.59 0.900 1985 list
4834 Thoas 9.1 72.331 86.82 96.21 L4 18.19 0.950 1989 list
7641 Cteatus 9.4 71.839 68.97 75.28 L4 27.77 0.980 1986 list
3540 Protesilaos 9.3 70.225 76.84 87.66 L4 8.95 0.940 1973 list
11395 Iphinous 9.8 68.977 64.71 67.78 L4 17.38 1998 list
4035 Thestor 9.6 68.733 68.23 66.99 L4 13.47 0.970 1986 list
5264 Telephus 9.4 68.472 73.26 81.38 L4 9.53 0.970 1991 list
1868 Thersites 9.5 68.163 70.08 78.89 L4 10.48 0.960 1960 list
9799 Thronium 9.6 68.033 64.87 72.42 L4 21.52 0.910 1996 list
4068 Menestheus 9.5 67.625 62.37 68.46 L4 14.40 0.950 1973 list
23135 Pheidas 9.9 66.230 58.29 68.50 L4 8.69 0.860 2000 list
2456 Palamedes 9.3 65.916 91.66 99.60 L4 7.24 0.920 1966 list
3709 Polypoites 9.1 65.297 99.09 85.23 L4 10.04 1.000 1985 list
1749 Telamon 9.5 64.898 81.06 69.14 L4 16.98 0.970 1949 list
3548 Eurybates 9.6 63.885 72.14 68.40 L4 8.71 0.730 1973 list
4543 Phoinix 9.7 63.836 62.79 69.54 L4 38.87 1.200 1989 list
12444 Prothoon 9.8 63.835 64.31 62.41 L5 15.82 1996 list
4836 Medon 9.5 63.277 67.73 78.70 L4 9.82 0.920 1989 list
16070 Charops 9.7 63.191 64.13 68.98 L5 20.24 0.960 1999 list
15440 Eioneus 9.6 62.519 66.48 71.88 L4 21.43 0.970 1998 list
4715 Medesicaste 9.7 62.097 63.91 65.93 L5 8.81 0.850 1989 list
34746 Thoon 9.8 61.684 60.51 63.63 L5 19.63 0.950 2001 list
38050 Bias 9.8 61.603 61.04 50.44 L4 18.85 0.990 1998 list
5130 Ilioneus 9.7 60.711 59.40 52.49 L5 14.77 0.960 1989 list
5027 Androgeos 9.6 59.786 57.86 n.a. L4 11.38 0.910 1988 list
6090 Aulis 9.4 59.568 74.53 81.92 L4 18.48 0.980 1989 list
5648 Axius 9.7 59.295 63.91 n.a. L5 37.56 0.900 1990 list
7119 Hiera 9.7 59.150 76.40 77.29 L4 400 0.950 1989 list
4805 Asteropaios 10.0 57.647 53.16 43.44 L5 12.37 1990 list
16974 Iphthime 9.8 57.341 55.43 57.15 L4 78.9 0.960 1998 list
4867 Polites 9.8 57.251 58.29 64.29 L5 11.24 1.010 1989 list
2895 Memnon 10.0 56.706 55.67 n.a. L5 7.50 0.710 1981 list
4708 Polydoros 9.9 54.964 55.67 n.a. L5 7.52 0.960 1988 list
(21601) 1998 XO89 10.0 54.909 55.67 56.08 L4 12.65 0.970 1998 list
12929 Periboea 9.9 54.077 61.04 55.34 L5 9.27 0.880 1999 list
17492 Hippasos 10.0 53.975 55.67 n.a. L5 17.75 1991 list
5652 Amphimachus 10.1 53.921 53.16 52.48 L4 8.37 1.050 1992 list
2759 Idomeneus 9.9 53.676 61.01 52.55 L4 32.38 0.910 1980 list
5258 Rhoeo 10.2 53.275 50.77 n.a. L4 19.85 1.010 1989 list
(12126) 1999 RM11 10.1 53.202 n.a. n.a. L5 n.a. ? 1999 list
(15502) 1999 NV27 10.0 53.100 55.67 50.86 L5 15.13 0.875 1999 list
4754 Panthoos 10.0 53.025 53.15 56.96 L5 27.68 1977 list
4832 Palinurus 10.0 52.058 53.16 n.a. L5 5.32 1.000 1988 list
5126 Achaemenides 10.5 51.922 44.22 48.57 L4 53.02 1989 list
3240 Laocoon 10.2 51.695 50.77 n.a. L5 11.31 0.880 1978 list
4902 Thessandrus 9.8 51.263 61.04 71.79 L4 738 0.960 1989 list
11552 Boucolion 10.1 51.136 53.16 53.91 L5 32.44 1993 list
(20729) 1999 XS143 10.4 50.961 46.30 n.a. L4 5.72 1.000 1999 list
6545 Leitus 10.1 50.951 53.16 n.a. L4 16.26 0.910 1986 list
4792 Lykaon 10.1 50.870 53.16 n.a. L5 40.09 0.960 1988 list
21900 Orus 10.0 50.810 55.67 53.87 L4 13.45 0.950 1999 list
1873 Agenor 10.1 50.799 53.76 54.38 L5 20.60 1971 list
5028 Halaesus 10.2 50.770 50.77 n.a. L4 24.94 0.900 1988 list
2146 Stentor 9.9 50.755 58.29 n.a. L4 16.40 1976 list
4722 Agelaos 10.0 50.378 53.16 59.47 L5 18.44 0.910 1977 list
5284 Orsilocus 10.1 50.159 53.16 n.a. L4 10.31 0.970 1989 list
11509 Thersilochos 10.1 49.960 53.16 56.23 L5 17.37 1990 list
5285 Krethon 10.1 49.606 58.53 52.61 L4 12.04 1.090 1989 list
4791 Iphidamas 10.1 49.528 57.85 59.96 L5 9.70 1.030 1988 list
9023 Mnesthus 10.1 49.151 50.77 60.80 L5 30.66 1988 list
5283 Pyrrhus 9.7 48.356 64.58 69.93 L4 7.32 0.950 1989 list
4946 Askalaphus 10.2 48.209 52.71 66.10 L4 22.73 0.940 1988 list
(22149) 2000 WD49 10.2 48.190 50.77 50.37 L4 7.84 1.090 2000 list
(32496) 2000 WX182 10.2 48.017 50.77 51.63 L5 23.34 0.950 2000 list
5120 Bitias 10.2 47.987 50.77 n.a. L5 15.21 0.780 1988 list
12714 Alkimos 10.1 47.819 61.04 54.62 L4 28.48 1991 list
7352 Hypsenor 9.9 47.731 55.67 47.07 L5 648 0.850 1994 list
1870 Glaukos 10.6 47.649 42.23 n.a. L5 5.99 1971 list
4138 Kalchas 10.1 46.462 53.16 61.04 L4 29.2 0.810 1973 list
(23958) 1998 VD30 10.2 46.001 50.77 47.91 L4 562 0.990 1998 list
4828 Misenus 10.4 45.954 46.30 43.22 L5 12.87 0.920 1988 list
4057 Demophon 10.1 45.683 53.16 n.a. L4 29.82 1.060 1985 list
4501 Eurypylos 10.4 45.524 46.30 n.a. L4 6.05 1989 list
4007 Euryalos 10.3 45.515 48.48 53.89 L4 6.39 1973 list
5259 Epeigeus 10.3 44.741 42.59 44.42 L4 18.42 1989 list
30705 Idaios 10.4 44.546 46.30 n.a. L5 15.74 1977 list
16560 Daitor 10.7 43.861 51.42 43.38 L5 1991 list
(15977) 1998 MA11 10.4 43.530 46.30 51.53 L5 250 0.906 1998 list
7543 Prylis 10.6 42.893 42.23 n.a. L4 17.80 1973 list
4827 Dares 10.5 42.770 44.22 n.a. L5 19.00 1988 list
1647 Menelaus 10.5 42.716 44.22 n.a. L4 17.74 0.866 1957 list
(A) Used sources: WISE/NEOWISE catalog (NEOWISE_DIAM_V1 PDS, Grav, 2012); IRAS data (SIMPS v.6 catalog); and Akari catalog (Usui, 2011); RP: rotation period and V–I (color index) taken from the LCDB

Note: missing data was completed with figures from the JPL SBDB (query) and from the LCDB (query form) for the WISE/NEOWISE and SIMPS catalogs, respectively. These figures are given in italics. Also, listing is incomplete above #100.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "624 Hektor (1907 XM)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(624) Hektor". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (624) Hektor. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 63. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_625. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 624 Hektor (1907 XM)" (2018-05-25 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  4. ^ "Asteroid 624 Hektor – Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  5. ^ "List of Jupiter Trojans". Minor Planet Center. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  6. ^ a b "Hector". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Marchis, F.; Durech, J.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Vachier, F.; Cuk, M.; Berthier, J.; et al. (March 2014). "The Puzzling Mutual Orbit of the Binary Trojan Asteroid (624) Hektor". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 783 (2): 6. arXiv:1402.7336. Bibcode:2014ApJ...783L..37M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/783/2/L37. S2CID 19868908.
  8. ^ Storrs, Alex; Weiss, Ben; Zellner, Ben; Burleson, Win; Sichitiu, Rukmini; Wells, Eddie; et al. (February 1999). "Imaging Observations of Asteroids with Hubble Space Telescope". Icarus. 137 (2): 260–268. Bibcode:1999Icar..137..260S. doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6047. S2CID 274199.
  9. ^ a b c d Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R. (November 2012). "WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojan Population: Taxonomy". The Astrophysical Journal. 759 (1): 10. arXiv:1209.1549. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759...49G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/49. S2CID 119101711. (online catalog)
  10. ^ a b c Carry, B. (December 2012), "Density of asteroids", Planetary and Space Science, 73 (1): 98–118, arXiv:1203.4336, Bibcode:2012P&SS...73...98C, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.009, S2CID 119226456 See Table 1.
  11. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  12. ^ Descamps, Pascal (January 2015). "Dumb-bell-shaped equilibrium figures for fiducial contact-binary asteroids and EKBOs". Icarus. 245: 64–79. arXiv:1410.7962. Bibcode:2015Icar..245...64D. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.08.002. S2CID 119272485.
  13. ^ a b c Franck Marchis (November 2005). "Searching and Characterizing Multiple Trojan Asteroids with LGS AO Systems" (PDF) (PDF). Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  14. ^ "Johnson's Archive - asteroids with satellites". Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  15. ^ "IAUC 8732: S/2006 (624) 1 (Satellite Discovery)". Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. International Astronomical Union. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  16. ^ @AllPlanets (11 November 2011). "Dome closed, Keck telescope is..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  17. ^ "M.P.C. 103967" (PDF). Minor Planet Circular. Minor Planet Center. 12 March 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  18. ^ a b Tanga, P.; Hestroffer, D.; Cellino, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Di Martino, M.; Zappalà, V. (April 2003). "Asteroid observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. II. Duplicity search and size measurements for 6 asteroids" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 401 (2): 733–741. Bibcode:2003A&A...401..733T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030032. Retrieved 14 June 2018.

External linksEdit