4AD is a record label owned by the UK based Beggars Group. It was founded in London under the name "Axis" (after the Hendrix album) by Ivo Watts-Russell and Peter Kent in 1980 as an imprint of Beggars Banquet Records. The name was changed to "4AD" after the release of the first four singles. In late 1980 Watts-Russell and Kent purchased the label off Beggars Banquet to become an independent record label, then in 1981, Kent sold his share to Watts-Russell.
|Parent company||Beggars Group|
|Genre||Alternative rock, post-punk, dream pop, electronic|
|Country of origin||United Kingdom|
The label gained prominence in the 1980s for releasing albums from alternative rock, post-punk, gothic rock and dream pop artists, such as Bauhaus, Cocteau Twins, Modern English, Dead Can Dance, Clan of Xymox, Pixies, Throwing Muses, Belly and Watts-Russell's own musical project This Mortal Coil. In 1987, the label scored an international hit with the dance music single "Pump Up the Volume" by the one-off project M|A|R|R|S. 4AD continued to have success in the 1990s and 2000s with releases from The Breeders, Lush, Red House Painters, Camera Obscura, TV on the Radio, St. Vincent and Bon Iver. As of July 2021[update], the label's current roster includes acts such as Dry Cleaning, The National, Beirut, Daughter, Deerhunter, Big Thief, Aldous Harding, Purity Ring and Future Islands.
In 1999, Watts-Russell sold 4AD back to the Beggars Group. The label's history was detailed by Martin Aston in the book Facing The Other Way, released in 2013.
Ivo Watts-Russell and Peter Kent, employees of the Beggars Banquet record store and label, founded Axis Records in late 1979 as a property of Beggars Banquet, that was run by the two of them. After the first four Axis singles in early 1980, it became apparent that the name Axis was already being used by another music company and the name was changed to 4AD. Other names which they had considered included 1980AD, 4WD and 1984.
An initial idea for the label was that it would be a "testing ground" for Beggars Banquet; successful acts would graduate up to Beggars Banquet after a year at 4AD. The only band to follow this path would be Bauhaus, who were signed to Beggars Banquet in late 1980, before Watts-Russell and Kent purchased the label outright.
The two were the sole owners for about a year. Kent sold his share to Watts-Russell at the end of 1981, and started a new Beggars Banquet subsidiary, Situation Two Records. Watts-Russell would maintain ownership of the label, and act as its president, until the late 1990s.
Watts-Russell invited the graphic designer Vaughan Oliver and the photographer Nigel Grierson to create sleeve art for the label, and as a result, 4AD acquired a visually distinctive identity. Its artists, such as Cocteau Twins and Dead Can Dance, developed cult followings in the mid-1980s, but 4AD continued to evolve, and, after signing Throwing Muses and Pixies, the label increasingly concentrated on underground American rock music. In 1983, 4AD had a minor hit in America with the Modern English single "I Melt With You". In 1987, 4AD had a UK number-one hit with the collaged "Pump up the Volume" by M|A|R|R|S (licensed to 4th & B'Way/Island Records in the US).
In the 1990s, 4AD established an office in Los Angeles and had success with bands such as The Breeders, Belly, Red House Painters, Unrest and His Name Is Alive, as well as solo material by Frank Black and Kristin Hersh.
The label's deal with Warner Bros. Records in the United States in 1992 would start the beginning of a new phase in 4AD history. New signings that year included American underground acts Kendra Smith, Tarnation, Air Miami and The Amps. The following year Watts-Russell started a sub-label, Guernica, who would release records by Unrest, That Dog, and Bettie Serveert.
In 1999, Watts-Russell sold his share in 4AD back to the Beggars Group (as it had by then become), but the label continued to release music and add new artists to its roster. Simon Halliday took control of the label at the end of 2007. Immediate successes were Bon Iver's critically lauded debut For Emma, Forever Ago (CAD 2809) and Dear Science by Brooklyn's TV on the Radio (CAD 2821). In 2008, the Beggars Group re-aligned itself so that several labels, including Beggars Banquet itself, were folded up on to the 4AD label. Bands including The National were moved to 4AD as a part of this merger. In 2009, the label released, amongst others, St. Vincent's second record Actor (CAD 2919) and Camera Obscura's My Maudlin Career. The following year, 4AD saw the release of The National's High Violet and acclaimed albums from Ariel Pink's Haunted Graffiti, Blonde Redhead and Deerhunter.
In the next three years, 4AD oversaw new releases from Scott Walker, Bon Iver, Iron & Wine, and Tune-Yards, whilst also expanded its roster with a number of beats and electronic acts in the shape of acts including Purity Ring and Grimes, with the latter releasing one of the best received albums of 2012. Additional signings to the label include bEEdEEgEE, of Gang Gang Dance, Lo-Fang, and British producer SOHN. At the start of 2014, the label also announced the additions of Future Islands and Merchandise, followed by D.D Dumbo.
In 2015, the label released critically lauded albums by Deerhunter and Grimes, amongst others. The following year, the label and The National landed their first UK No. 1 record with Sleep Well Beast. Latest signings to the roster include Aldous Harding and British band Dry Cleaning.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2021)
While 4AD did not handle any distribution outside the United Kingdom for many years, it had many willing distributors in many countries; Virgin Records for France, Nippon Columbia distributed much of the label in Japan, while PolyGram subsidiary Vertigo Records released many of the label's records in Canada. The USA had always been a tough market for 4AD, even though its records sold well there as imports. Only a few of the label's acts had deals to license their recordings in the USA, among various labels.
In 1992, Watts-Russell signed a five-year distribution deal with Warner Bros. Records so that nearly all 4AD releases would be released in the United States. When the deal ended, he offered to sell the label back to Beggars Banquet. Dead Can Dance's output, however, stayed with Warner Bros. until the sale back to Beggars Group.
The deal with Beggars Banquet was completed by early 1999, and since then it has owned 4AD and its distribution worldwide. This led to many negotiations for the label's back catalogue, like getting back American distribution rights for Pixies, Dead Can Dance and Cocteau Twins.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2021)
- Adrianne Lenker
- Aldous Harding
- Atlas Sound
- Becky and the Birds
- Big Thief
- Bing & Ruth
- The Breeders
- D.D Dumbo
- Dry Cleaning
- Erika de Casier
- Future Islands
- Gang Gang Dance
- Gene Clark
- Helado Negro
- Holly Herndon
- Jenny Hval
- The Lemon Twigs
- Lucinda Chua
- Maria Somerville
- The National
- Purity Ring
- Tkay Maidza
- U.S. Girls
- Velvet Negroni
- Air Miami (disbanded)
- The Amps (disbanded)
- Anni Rossi (active)
- A.R. Kane (disbanded)
- Ariel Pink (active)
- Tom Baril (photographer published by 4AD)
- Bauhaus (reformed)
- Bearz (still active as a David Gunstone project c. 2019)
- Belly (active 2018)
- Heidi Berry (inactive; currently a teacher)
- Bettie Serveert (active)
- The Big Pink (active)
- The Birthday Party (disbanded)
- Frank Black (active)
- Blonde Redhead (active)
- Bon Iver (active)
- Broken Records (active)
- Michael Brook (active)
- The Bulgarian State Television Female Vocal Choir (active)
- Camera Obscura (active)
- Celebration (active)
- Clan of Xymox (active)
- Cocteau Twins (disbanded)
- Colourbox (dissolved)
- Cuba (a.k.a. Air Cuba) (disbanded)
- Cupol (one-off collaboration)
- C.V.O. (disbanded)
- Dance Chapter (disbanded)
- Dead Can Dance (active)
- Department of Eagles (active)
- Diana Gordon (active)
- Dif Juz (disbanded)
- Tanya Donelly (active)
- EL VY
- Electricity in Our Homes (active)
- Frazier Chorus (dissolved)
- Future Islands (active)
- Future of the Left (active)
- Lisa Germano (active)
- Lisa Gerrard (active)
- Lisa Gerrard & Pieter Bourke
- Grimes (active)
- B. C. Gilbert & G. Lewis
- The Glee Club (disbanded)
- Rachel Goswell
- GusGus (active)
- Rene Halkett & David J
- Neil Halstead (active)
- The Happy Family (disbanded)
- Tim Hecker (active)
- Kristin Hersh (active)
- His Name Is Alive (active)
- The Hope Blister (disbanded)
- Rowland S. Howard (deceased) & Lydia Lunch
- In Camera (disbanded)
- Inc. (active)
- Indians (active)
- Insides (active)
- Iron & Wine (active)
- It Hugs Back (active)
- Jóhann Jóhannsson (deceased)
- Matt Johnson (The The founder; released a solo album in 1981 that was reissued in 1993 through 4AD as a The The album)
- Joker (active)
- Lakuna (one-off project)
- Mark Lanegan Band
- Last Dance (disbanded)
- The Late Cord (one-off collaboration)
- Liima (active)
- Liquorice (one-off collaboration)
- Lo-Fang (active)
- LNZNDRF (one-off collaboration)
- Lydia Lunch (active)
- Lush (disbanded; reformed 2015–2016)
- MARRS (disbanded)
- Magnetophone (active)
- Mass (disbanded)
- Merchandise (active)
- Methyl Ethel (active)
- Vinny Miller (active)
- Minotaur Shock (active)
- Modern English (active)
- Mojave 3 (disbanded)
- John Moreland (active)
- The Mountain Goats (active)
- My Captains (disbanded)
- Colin Newman (active)
- Pieter Nooten & Michael Brook
- The Paladins (on hiatus)
- Pale Saints (disbanded)
- The Past 7 Days (disbanded)
- Brendan Perry (active)
- Piano Magic (disbanded)
- Pixies (active)
- Pixx (active)
- Emma Pollock (active)
- Psychotik Tanks (disbanded)
- Ra Ra Riot (one-off split single with Stornoway)
- Red Atkins (deceased)
- Red House Painters (disbanded)
- Rema-Rema (disbanded)
- Richenel (deceased)
- Scheer (disbanded)
- Scott Walker (deceased)
- Serena-Maneesh (active)
- Shox (disbanded)
- Kendra Smith (active c.2017–2018)
- Sort Sol (active)
- SpaceGhostPurrp (active)
- Spasmodic Caress (disbanded)
- Spirea X (disbanded)
- Spoonfed Hybrid (disbanded)
- Starry Smooth Hound (the original alias of Vinny Miller)
- Søren Juul (active)
- Stereolab (active)
- Stornoway (disbanded)
- St. Vincent (active)
- Swallow (disbanded)
- Sybarite (active)
- Tarnation (disbanded; currently Paula Frazer and Tarnation)
- that dog. (active)
- The The (active)
- Thievery Corporation (active)
- This Mortal Coil (concluded)
- Throwing Muses (active)
- Tindersticks (active)
- Torres (active)
- Tones on Tail (disbanded)
- TV on the Radio (active)
- Twin Shadow (active)
- 23 Envelope (4AD's design regulars in the 1980s and 1990s; became v23)
- Ultra Vivid Scene (disbanded)
- Underground Lovers (active)
- Unrest (disbanded)
- Vaughan Oliver & v23 (deceased)
- M Ward (active)
- Wolf & Cub (active)
- The Wolfgang Press (disbanded)
- Xmal Deutschland (disbanded)
- Zomby (active)
Catalog numbering schemeEdit
This section possibly contains original research. (January 2021)
The attention to cataloguing aided the collectability of 4AD (the prefixes extended to DAD, GAD and HAD). It was all part of the bespoke detail that set independent labels apart from the majors. It created an identifiable culture that had grown big enough to support its own distribution system and trade magazine.
For the most part, 4AD's official UK releases follow a standard scheme for designating catalog numbers. Although there have been some variations over the years, some general rules can be devised to easily determine the format (LP, CD, etc.) and year of release by looking at a 4AD catalog number.
The first part of a catalog number is a prefix that contains a variation of "AD," based on the 4AD name. Some standards are:
- AD = single
- BAD = EP
- CAD = full-length LP
- DAD = double LP
- MAD = mini-LP
Special editions of releases had an extra "D" added to the prefix:
- CAD D = special edition of a full-length LP
- DAD D = special edition of a double LP
Some other "AD" variations have been used less frequently over the years, including (but not limited to):
- EAD = electronic download
- GAD = reissue (usually mid-priced)
- HAD = remastered or significantly altered reissue (usually with some combination of bonus tracks, re-mastering, or new artwork)
- JAD and MAD = "mini album" that is longer than an EP but shorter than an LP
- SAD = Super Audio CD release (as in the Dead Can Dance 2008 remastered reissues)
- TAD = temporary/limited release
The second part of the catalog number is a number that represents the year of release (via the number of years since 1980, following the '1980 Forward' theme), and the order of release in the particular year. For example, This Mortal Coil's LP It'll End in Tears is CAD 411. The "CAD" represents that the release is an LP, the "4" in 411 represents 1984, and 11 marks the 11th release of that year. This is the vinyl LP release; cassette versions have "C" added to the prefix (CADC 411 in this example); CD versions have "CD" added at the end (CAD 411CD).
A side effect of this scheme is that it made it seem like 4AD had hundreds of releases early on. Again using CAD411 as an example, a causal observer might assume this was the 411th release in the label's catalog, when 4AD actually had less than 100 total releases in their catalog at the time. In the 1990s, 4AD changed the first part of the number from "100s" to "1000s," temporarily making the number not correspond with the number of years since 1980. Releases in 1990 used "00" directly after the prefix (e.g., the Pixies' Bossanova, CAD0010, released in the fall of 1990); 1991 used "10" directly after the prefix (e.g., This Mortal Coil's Blood, DAD 1005, released early in 1991), 1992 used "20," and so on for the rest of the 1990s.
Wanting to return to numbering with the years since 1980, 4AD had to provide a workaround for releases in the year 2000. Since the "20" numerical designation had been used in 1992, all releases in 2000 used "2K" (e.g., Mojave 3's Excuses for Travellers, CAD 2K05, released in early 2000). Between 2001 and 2009, the catalog numbering scheme returned to the original format, with the first two digits of the number representing the years since 1980 (e.g., Blonde Redhead's 23, CAD 2717, released in 2007 – the 27th year since 1980). Things have not been too consistent since, and there have been several gaps. 2010 releases feature the numerical designation 3X, as "30" had already been used in 1993. This process appears to have come to an end with the few xAD37nn releases of the early months of 2017. The catalogue numbers of all releases since April 2017 (beginning with The Far Field by Future Islands, 4AD0001CD/4AD0001LP) have begun with 4AD00nn and ended with letters indicating the release format. No indication of release year is given.
The 4AD Sessions are an ongoing series of video recordings with various acts from the label's roster. Following on from the Deerhunter session at the Studio Plateaux on Platts Eyott island in 2008, the recordings see 4AD artists performing back-catalogue covers and alternative versions of their own material. They are housed on the label's website.
- Martin Aston (26 September 2013). Facing the Other Way: The Story of 4AD. HarperCollins. p. 33. ISBN 9780007522019.
- Martin Aston (26 September 2013). Facing the Other Way: The Story of 4AD. HarperCollins. p. 10. ISBN 9780007522019.
- Martin Aston (10 October 2013). "4AD: the 'pure' label behind Pixies and Cocteau Twins". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Jeffries, David (6 November 2013). "AllMusic Loves 4AD Records". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Dorian Lynskey (12 September 2013). "Facing the Other Way: The Story of 4AD by Martin Aston – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Colin Larkin, ed. (1992). The Guinness Who’s Who of Indie and New Wave Music (First ed.). Guinness Publishing. pp. 115/6. ISBN 0-85112-579-4.
- "4AD: the 'pure' label behind Pixies and Cocteau Twins". The Guardian. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- "Label of love: 4AD". The Guardian. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- King, Richard (2012). How Soon is Now?: The Madmen and Mavericks who made Independent Music 1975–2005. Faber & Faber.
- "6 Music – 1980 Forward – 25 Years of 4AD". BBC. 21 November 2005. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Swash, Rosie (30 April 2008). "A farewell to Beggars Banquet's indie charm". Music Blog. The Guardian. Guardian News & Media. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Solarski, Matthew (29 April 2008). "Label Shuffle: 4AD Absorbs Too Pure, Beggars Banquet". Pitchfork. Pitchfork Media. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Joe Muggs (7 August 2012). "4AD boss Simon Halliday on living with the label's past, and his vision for its future". FACT. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Official Albums Chart Top 100 | Official Charts Company". www.officialcharts.com. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
- Scolforo, Carli (10 March 2021). "4AD Celebrates 40 Years With Bills & Aches & Blues". Paste. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
- Martin Aston (26 September 2013). Facing the Other Way: The Story of 4AD. HarperCollins. p. 104. ISBN 9780007522019.
- Thorpe, Vanessa (28 August 2010). "4AD, the record label that gave birth to indie cool, celebrates 30th anniversary". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "4AD Sessions". 4AD. Retrieved 14 January 2017.