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Year 478 (CDLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Illus without colleague (or, less frequently, year 1231 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 478 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
|Ab urbe condita||1231|
|Balinese saka calendar||399–400|
|Chinese calendar||丁巳年 (Fire Snake)|
3174 or 3114
— to —
戊午年 (Earth Horse)
3175 or 3115
|- Vikram Samvat||534–535|
|- Shaka Samvat||399–400|
|- Kali Yuga||3578–3579|
|Iranian calendar||144 BP – 143 BP|
|Islamic calendar||148 BH – 147 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1434 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||789/790 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1020–1021|
604 or 223 or −549
— to —
605 or 224 or −548
- Verina, mother-in-law of Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno, attempts to kill Isaurian general Illus for turning against her brother Basiliscus. A major revolt is led by her son-in-law Marcian and the Ostrogoth warlord Theodoric Strabo, but Illus again proves his loyalty to Zeno by quashing the revolt in 479.
- Assassination of former Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos - King Odoacer of Italy uses his death as a pretext to annex Dalmatia, the last remaining bastion of Western Roman control (which had been independent since 476).
- The first Shinto shrines are built in Japan.
- The Liu Song dynasty ends in China.
- Chinese chronicles record a memorial sent by the "King of Japan" (possibly Yūryaku), who describes himself as "Supreme Director of Military Affairs in Japan and Korea" to the Court of the Northern Wei Dynasty. The Chinese emperor responds by confirming the Japanese dynasty in those titles. This is the earliest verifiable date in Japanese history.