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4674 Pauling, provisional designation 1989 JC, is a spheroidal binary[a] Hungaria asteroid from the innermost regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 4.5 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by American astronomer Eleanor Helin at the U.S Palomar Observatory, California, on 2 May 1989, and named after American chemist and Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling.[2][3]

4674 Pauling
Discovery [1]
Discovered byE. F. Helin
Discovery sitePalomar Obs.
Discovery date2 May 1989
MPC designation(4674) Pauling
Named after
Linus Pauling
(American Nobel Laureate)[2]
1989 JC
main-belt · Hungaria[3][4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc31.47 yr (11,493 days)
Aphelion1.9896 AU
Perihelion1.7277 AU
1.8586 AU
2.53 yr (926 days)
0° 23m 20.4s / day
Known satellites1 [a][5]
Physical characteristics
Dimensions4.19±0.12 km[6]
4.52 km[4][7]
4.684±0.046 km[8]
4.7±0.5 km[9]
2.53057±0.00009 h[b]
2.5306±0.0003 h[11]
2.5307±0.0003 h[12]
2.5312±0.0001 h[13]
2.532±0.002 h[c]
2.533±0.003 h[14]
13.3[8][9] · 13.8[1] · 14.0[11] · 14.245[4][7] · 14.43±0.38[15]


Orbit and classificationEdit

The bright E-type asteroid is a member of the Hungaria family, which form the innermost dense concentration of asteroids in the Solar System. It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.7–2.0 AU once every 2 years and 6 months (926 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.07 and an inclination of 19° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The first precovery was taken at Palomar Observatory in 1985, extending the asteroid's observation arc by 4 years prior to its discovery.[3]

Diameter and albedoEdit

According to the surveys carried out by NASA's space-based Spitzer and WISE telescopes, the asteroid measures between 4.2 and 4.8 kilometers in diameter and has a surface albedo of 0.17 to 0.39.[6][7][8][9][10]


Several rotational lightcurves for this asteroids were obtained from photometric observations between 2005 and 2015, most notably by Italian astronomer Silvano Casulli and American astronomer Brian Warner at the U.S. Palmer Divide Observatory, Colorado. The lightcurves gave a rotation period of 2.531–2.533 hours (U=3) with an exceptionally low brightness amplitude of less than 0.01 in magnitude, indicating that the body has a nearly spheroidal shape.[11][13][14]


In 2004, a team of astronomers at ESO's Very Large Telescope, Chile, announced that Pauling is orbited by a small asteroid moon.[a][5] The moon has received a provisional designation for natural satellites: S/2004 (4674) 1. It was believed to measure 2.5 kilometers in diameter (now rather 1.5 km, since the primary's size estimate has been reduced from 8 to 4.5 kilometers) and to orbit Pauling at a distance of 250 kilometers[11] once every 1200 hours.[4]


This minor planet is named in honor of American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and multiple Nobel Laureate, Linus Pauling (1901–1994). The naming took place on the occasion of his 90th birthday. Pauling had a renowned and several decade long career at Caltech, and was leading its Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. In 1954 and 1962, he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the Nobel Peace Prize, respectively. Astronomer Eleanor Helin was one of his admirers.[2] The approved naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 30 March 1991 (M.P.C. 17981).[16]


  1. ^ a b c Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, IAUC 8297, March 2004, reports:[5]
    The discovery of a satellite of minor planet (4674) Pauling from J-, H-, and K_s-band imaging with the ESO 8-m Very Large Telescope UT4/YEPUN (+NAOS/CONICA adaptive-optics system) on Cerro Paranal. On Mar. 4.2278, the companion was at separation 0".39 (projected separation 250 km) in p.a. 308 deg. The K_s brightness difference is about 2.5 mag, giving an estimated diameter of the satellite of about 2.5 km (assumed diameter of the primary being 8 km).
    Reported by:
    W. J. Merline, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI); P. M. Tamblyn, Binary Astronomy and SwRI; C. Dumas, European Southern Observatory (ESO); F. Menard, Observatoire de Grenoble; L. M. Close, University of Arizona; C. R. Chapman, SwRI; G. Duvert, Observatoire de Grenoble; and N. Ageorges, ESO IAUC 8297: S/2004 (4674) 1
  2. ^ Pravec (2005) web: rotation period 2.53057±0.00009 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.06 mag and no Quality Code assigned by the LCDB. Summary figures at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) for (4674) Pauling
  3. ^ Warner (2016): rotation period 2.53057±0.00009 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.06 mag with a Quality Code of U=3. Summary figures for (4674) Pauling at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL)


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 4674 Pauling (1989 JC)" (2017-06-03 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(4674) Pauling". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (4674) Pauling. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 402. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_4590. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c "4674 Pauling (1989 JC)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (4674) Pauling". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  5. ^ a b c Merline, W. J.; Tamblyn, P. M.; Dumas, C.; Menard, F.; Close, L. M.; Chapman, C. R.; et al. (March 2004). "S/2004 (4674) 1". IAU Circ. 8297 (8297): 1. Bibcode:2004IAUC.8297....1M. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  6. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d Pravec, Petr; Harris, Alan W.; Kusnirák, Peter; Galád, Adrián; Hornoch, Kamil (September 2012). "Absolute magnitudes of asteroids and a revision of asteroid albedo estimates from WISE thermal observations". Icarus. 221 (1): 365–387. Bibcode:2012Icar..221..365P. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.07.026. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; et al. (November 2012). "Multiple asteroid systems: Dimensions and thermal properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations". Icarus. 221 (2): 1130–1161. arXiv:1604.05384. Bibcode:2012Icar..221.1130M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.09.013. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  10. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d Warner, Brian D.; Pravec, Petr; Kusnirák, Peter; Foote, Cindy; Foote, Jerry; Galád, Adrián; et al. (June 2006). "Lightcurves analysis for Hungaria asteroids 3854 George, 4440 Tchantches and 4674 Pauling". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 33 (2): 34–35. Bibcode:2006MPBu...33...34W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  12. ^ Polishook, D.; Brosch, N.; Prialnik, D. (March 2011). "Rotation periods of binary asteroids with large separations - Confronting the Escaping Ejecta Binaries model with observations". Icarus. 212 (1): 167–174. arXiv:1012.4810. Bibcode:2011Icar..212..167P. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.12.020. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  13. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (4674) Pauling". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  14. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (January 2011). "Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2010 June-September". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 38 (1): 25–31. Bibcode:2011MPBu...38...25W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  15. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  16. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 May 2016.

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