3rd Canadian Division
The 3rd Canadian Division is a formation of the Canadian Army responsible for the command and mobilization of all army units in the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, as well as all units extending westwards from the city of Thunder Bay. It was first created as a formation of the Canadian Corps during the First World War. It was stood down following the war and was later reactivated as the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division during the Second World War. The second iteration served with distinction from 1941 to 1945, taking part in the D-Day landings of 6 June 1944. A duplicate of the 3rd Canadian Division was formed in 1945 to serve on occupation duty in Germany, and was disbanded the following year. In 2013, Land Force Western Area, a peacetime military organization in western Canada, was ordered to be redesignated as 3rd Canadian Division. On 6 June 2014, the 3rd Canadian Division adopted the insignia, traditions and history of the previous formations. From the middle of 1916, the division has been identified by a distinctive French-Grey patch worn on the uniforms of its soldiers.
|3rd Canadian Division|
3rd Canadian Infantry Division
3rd Canadian Division
3rd Canadian Division formation patch
|Branch|| Canadian Expeditionary Force|
|Nickname(s)||The Water Rats|
|Brigadier-General T.J. Cadieu OMM, MSM, CD|
First World WarEdit
The 3rd Canadian Division was formed in France in December 1915 under the command of Major-General Malcolm Mercer. Its members served in France and Flanders until Armistice Day. While with the 3rd Division at Ypres, Mercer became the highest-ranking Canadian officer killed in action during the First World War. On the same day, Brigadier V. A. Williams, commanding the 8th Infantry Brigade, became the highest-ranking Canadian officer captured in the First World War, also at the Battle of Mount Sorrel. Mercer was replaced by Louis Lipsett, who commanded the division until September 1918, shortly before he too was killed in action on 14 October 1918, while commander of British 4th Division. Major-General Frederick Loomis closed out World War I as the commander.
7th Infantry Brigade:
- The Royal Canadian Regiment. December 1915 – 11 November 1918;
- Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. 24 December 1915 – 11 November 1918;
- 42nd (Royal Highlanders) Battalion Canadian Infantry. December 1915 – 11 November 1918;
- 49th (Edmonton) Battalion Canadian Infantry. December 1915 – 11 November 1918.
8th Infantry Brigade:
- 1st Battalion, Canadian Mounted Rifles, CEF. December 1915 – 11 November 1918;
- 2nd Battalion, Canadian Mounted Rifles, CEF. December 1915 – 11 November 1918;
- 4th Battalion, Canadian Mounted Rifles, CEF. December 1915 – 11 November 1918;
- 5th Battalion, Canadian Mounted Rifles, CEF. December 1915 – 11 November 1918.
9th Infantry Brigade: (Joined the Division in January 1916)
- 43rd (Cameron Highlanders) Battalion Canadian Infantry. January 1916 – 11 November 1918;
- 52nd (North Ontario) Battalion Canadian Infantry. January 1916 – 11 November 1918;
- 58th (Central Ontario) Battalion Canadian Infantry. January 1916 – 11 November 1918;
- 60th (Victoria Rifles) Battalion Canadian Infantry. January 1916 – 30 April 1917. (Disbanded)
- 116th (Ontario County Infantry) Battalion Canadian Infantry. April 1917 – 11 November 1918.
- 3rd Canadian Pioneer Battalion. 8 January 1916 – May 1917 (Disbanded);
- 123rd Canadian Pioneer Battalion. March 1917 – June 1918. To the 3rd Canadian Engineer Brigade.
Battles and engagements on the Western FrontEdit
- Battle of Mount Sorrel – 2–13 June
- Battle of Flers-Courcelette – 15–22 September
- Battle of Morval – 25 September
- Battle of Thiepval – 26–28 September
- Battle of Le Transloy – 1–18 October
- Battle of the Ancre Heights – 1–11 October
- Battle of Vimy Ridge – 9–14 April
- Attack on La Coulotte – 23 April
- Third Battle of the Scarpe – 3–4 May
- Affairs South of the Souchez River – 3–25 June
- Capture of Avion – 26–29 June
- Battle of Hill 70 – 15–25 August
- Second Battle of Passchendaele October 26 – 10 November
- Battle of Amiens – 8–11 August
- Actions round Damery – 15–17 August
- Battle of the Scarpe – 26–30 August (including the capture of Monchy-le-Preux)
- Battle of the Canal du Nord – 27 September – 1 October (including the capture of Bourlon Wood)
- Battle of Cambrai – 8–9 October (including the Capture of Cambrai)
- Battle of Valenciennes – 1–2 November
- Pursuit to Mons – 11 November
Second World WarEdit
The formation of the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division was authorized during the Second World War on 17 May 1940. There was then a considerable delay until the brigade and divisional headquarters were formed on 5 September, and the first divisional commander was appointed on 26 October.
While the division's components were forming, The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa was detached and transferred to Iceland as part of Z Force. The battalion spent the winter of 1940–41 there, then moved to the United Kingdom. The division's 8th and 9th Canadian Infantry Brigades began embarking as early as 1 July 1941 and arrived in the United Kingdom at the end of that month. The 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade embarked in August and arrived at the beginning of September. After its arrival, the division spent three uneventful years in garrison and training duties prior to the assault landing on Juno Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944, as part of the British Second Army, later joining the newly formed First Canadian Army. Battle honours include Caen, Falaise, clearing the Channel ports, the Breskens pocket, and the final offensives of 1945. During the Battle of the Scheldt, the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division had the nickname of "Water Rats" bestowed upon them by Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery, commanding 21st Army Group, in recognition of the poor conditions of terrain through which they fought, first in the Normandy landings, and then in the flooded Breskens Pocket.
- 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade
- 8th Canadian Infantry Brigade
- 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade
- Divisional Troops
- 7th Reconnaissance Regiment (17th Duke of York's Royal Canadian Hussars)
- The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Machine Gun)
- 3rd Canadian Divisional Signals, R.C. Sigs
- No. 3 Defence and Employment Platoon (Lorne Scots)
- No. 4 Canadian Provost Company, Canadian Provost Corps
- No.14, No.22, No.23 Field Ambulance, Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps
- Divisional Royal Canadian Artillery
- Divisional Royal Canadian Engineers
- 6th Field Company, RCE
- 16th Field Company, RCE
- 18th Field Company, RCE
- 3rd Canadian Field Park Company, RCE
- 3rd Canadian Divisional Bridge Platoon, RCE
Juno Beach, D DayEdit
Juno Beach was five miles wide and stretched on either side of Courseulles-sur-Mer.
The 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, with the 2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade under command, landed in two brigade groups, the 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade and the 8th Canadian Infantry Brigade. Each brigade had three infantry battalions and an armoured regiment in support, two artillery field regiments, combat engineer companies and extra units from the British 79th Armoured Division. The 10th Armoured Regiment (The Fort Garry Horse) tanks supported the 7th Brigade landing on the left and the 6th Armoured Regiment (1st Hussars) tanks supported the landing on the right.
The 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade was kept in reserve and landed later that day and advanced through the lead brigades. The 27th Armoured Regiment (The Sherbrooke Fusiliers Regiment) provided tank support.
The initial assault was carried out by:
- North Shore Regiment on the left at St. Aubin (Nan Red beach)
- Queen's Own Rifles in the centre at Bernières (Nan White beach)
- Regina Rifles at Courseulles (Nan Green beach)
- Royal Winnipeg Rifles on the western edge of Courseulles (Mike Red and Mike Green beaches)
Canadian air, land and sea forces suffered approximately 950 casualties on D-Day, the majority being soldiers of the 3rd Canadian Division. By noon, the entire division was ashore and leading elements had pushed several kilometres inland to seize bridges over the Seulles River. By 6:00 pm, they had captured the town of Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer. A 1st Hussars armoured troop reached its objective along with men of The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada before nightfall, when both units moved 15 km inland and crossed the Caen-Bayeux highway. However, this troop was forced to pull back because they had passed the supporting infantry. By the end of D-Day, the division had penetrated farther into France than any other Allied force, though counter-attacks by elements of two German armoured divisions prevented further major gains for four weeks.
None of the assault divisions, including 3rd Canadian Division, had managed to secure their D-Day objectives, which lay inland, although the Canadians came closer than any other Allied formation. Indeed, The Queen's Own Rifles of the 8th Brigade were the only Allied battalion to capture their D-Day objective.
By the end of the next day, the Canadian forces had linked up with the British forces that had landed at Sword Beach.
Time line Juno BeachEdit
- 6 June 1944
- 05:35 German shore batteries open fire; Allied naval forces, now massed along entire Normandy coast, begin bombardment.
- 06:30 Assault on beaches starts. 3rd Canadian Division landing on Juno made more difficult by strong current. Delay allows Germans to mount strong defence. Objective: advance inland and join troops from British beaches.
- 07:00 German radio broadcasts first report of landing.
- 08:30 48 Commando lands at St Aubin, Juno Beach and heads east. Beach clearance difficult due to high tides and rough seas.
- 09:00 General Eisenhower issues communiqué announcing start of invasion.
- 09:35 Canadian 8th Brigade liberates Bernières.
- 11:12 After fierce fire fight, 7th Brigade secures Juno exit at Courseulles. But congestion as Canadian 9th Brigade arrives.
- 11:20 Canadians capture Tailleville, Banville and St Croix.
- 12:00 As Winston Churchill reports landings to House of Commons, Further landings on Juno. Langrune captured by Juno troops.
- 13:35 German 352nd Division wrongly advises HQ that Allied assault repulsed. Message not corrected until 18.00.
- 14:15 All Canadian 3rd Division now ashore on Juno. Rapid advances start: troops link with those from Gold.
- 18:00 3rd Canadian Div, North Nova Scotia Highlanders reach three miles inland. 1st Hussar tanks cross Caen-Bayeux railway, 10 miles inland. Canadian Scottish link with 50th Division at Creully.
- 20:00 Canadians from Juno Beach reach Villons les Buissons, seven miles inland. Attack by 21st Panzers reach coast between Sword and Juno at Luc-sur-Mer.
- 22:00 Rommel returns to HQ from Germany. Montgomery sails for France.
Juno Beach: 21,400 troops landed, with fewer than 1,000 casualties. Aim of capturing Carpiquet airfield not achieved. No link yet with Sword forces.
Fighting in NormandyEdit
The 3rd Canadian Infantry Division served extensively in the Battle of Normandy as a component firstly of I British Corps and later under the command of II Canadian Corps. On D-Day+1, units of the division became the first among the Allies to secure their D-Day objectives. The villages of Authie and Carpiquet both saw heavy fighting between the Canadians and German defenders of the 12th SS Panzer Division. Over the course of five days, the 12th SS launched a series of counter-attacks in an attempt to crush the Canadian bridgehead and throw them back into the sea. The attacks cost the 12th a third of their armoured strength and they were forced to retire in the face of stubborn resistance, Allied naval gunfire and aerial superiority. On 4 July 1944, the 3rd Canadian Division, along with the British 3rd and 59th Infantry Divisions and supported by elements of the 79th Armoured Division launched Operation Windsor, capturing the Carpiquet Airfield and the surrounding areas from the 12th SS after several hours of confused and hard fighting. On 8 July, the 3rd Canadian Division participated in Operation Charnwood, the British Second Army's final advance on the northern parts of Caen. Once again the Canadians excelled and captured all their objectives after suffering, once again, heavy casualties.
On 18 July, Operation Atlantic was launched, the Canadian advance that would coincide with Operation Goodwood, happening further east by British forces in the area south of Caen. The 2nd and 3rd Canadian divisions, supported by integral armour support, advanced towards Caen, one of the objectives being the village of Colombelles and the surrounding hills. This village and the surrounding area was defended by the battle-proven 21st Panzer Division. After several hours of confused fighting on the 18th and the 19th, the Germans were forced back from the outskirts of the town and pushed back over the river Orne. The 3rd Canadian Division continued the advance on the 20th and the lead units came under heavy machine-gun and small arms fire from a chateau close to Colombelles. The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada, with support from the 17th Duke of York's Royal Canadian Hussars, pushed forward once again despite heavy casualties and captured the heavily fortified village of Gibberville. The rest of the 3rd Division captured Colombelles through the course of the day. The Canadians were then faced with the formidable German defensive positions on the Verrières Ridge, were the SS troops had created excellent field fortifications and deployed hundreds of field artillery pieces, Nebelwerfers and dug numbers of trenches and foxholes for defence. The 2nd Canadian division's 4th and 6th brigades assaulted the ridge, but suffered heavy losses and were forced to fall back. The attack went in during heavy rain, which turned the ground to mud and bogged down the Canadian armoured support and kept the Hawker Typhoon fighter-bomber support from the Royal Air Force from showing up. After the failed attack, troops from both the 2nd and 12th SS Panzer Division counter-attacked; it was only with support from the 3rd Canadian Division's 8th Brigade that they managed to beat the Germans back.
Meanwhile, the British 3rd Infantry Division faced considerable resistance and advanced only with great cost of life. Tiger tanks from the 503rd Schwere Panzer Abteilung (503rd Heavy Armour Battalion) caused ferocious losses among the British armour support. The 7th Armoured Division, 11th Armoured Division and Guards Armoured Division faced opposition from the 1st and 12th SS Panzer divisions and suffered heavy losses.
The offensive continued for two more days before the Allied offensive ground to a halt in face of stiffening German resistance. The German Panzer divisions in the area had been bled completely dry, losing a staggering number of tanks and men, which could not be easily replaced. Two days later, on 25 July, the United States First Army launched Operation Cobra, since there were no German panzer divisions to stop them as nearly all of the available panzer units had been sent to stop the British/Canadian advance. The 3rd Canadian Division and the other units involved in the offensive were allowed to catch their breath and they dug in, expecting a German counter-attack which never came.
On 5 September, 3rd Canadian overran the Fortress of Mimoyecques, revealing the infrastructure for the unknown V-3 cannon destroyed by the Tallboy bombs. Between 17–22 September 1944, 3rd Canadian were intimately involved in the liberation of Boulogne-sur-Mer, during which a French civilian guided the Canadians to a "secret passage" leading into the walled old town and by-passing the German defenders. By 1 October 1944, the Division had also liberated Calais.
- Major General Ernest William Sansom: 1940–1941
- Major General Charles Basil Price: 1941–1942
- Major General Rod Keller: 1942–1944
- Major General Daniel Spry: 1944–1945
- Major General Ralph Holley Keefler: 1945
Duplicate division (Canadian Army Occupation Force) 1945–1946Edit
In 1945, the 3rd Canadian Division, Canadian Army Occupation Force (CAOF) was created, based on the organization of the 3rd Infantry Division. The component units of the new division were named after the units of the existing 3rd Infantry Division. The formation was formed on the organizational structure of a standard infantry division and supplied units as part of Canada's commitment to postwar European reconstruction. The occupation force served in Germany until relieved by the 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division of the British Army on 15 May 1946. Authorization for units to disband came under General Order 162/46 and 201/46, and headquarters was disbanded by General Order 283/46, effective 20 June 1946.
Land Force Western Area and reactivationEdit
Land Force Western Area was created on 1 September 1991, taking command of what was previously Prairie Militia Area, Pacific Militia Area, and the Regular Force Army units and formations between Lake Superior and the Pacific Ocean. At that point in time, the Militia Areas ceased to exist, and the seven subordinate Militia Districts were reorganised into four: British Columbia District, Alberta District, Saskatchewan District, and Manitoba-Lakehead District.
Later that decade, the four reserve force districts were again reorganized into three Canadian Brigade Groups.
In 2013, LFWA received instructions to redesignate itself as 3rd Canadian Division. The change officially took place on 6 June 2014, the 70th anniversary of the division's landing in Normandy. With this change of name, the formation was also granted the identifying patch and historical lineage of the division that fought in the two world wars.
3rd Canadian Division current organizationEdit
3rd Canadian Division comprises one Regular Force Mechanized Brigade Group, three Reserve Force Brigade Groups, one Division Support Group, one Division Training Centre, a Canadian Ranger Patrol Group, an Intelligence Company and a Military Police Regiment:
There are also five units that are under direct command of 3rd Canadian Division (they do not operate under any of the four brigade groups nor the one area support group). They are:
- 3rd Canadian Division Headquarters – (CFB Edmonton)
- 6 Intelligence Company – (CFB Edmonton)
- 1 Military Police Regiment – (CFB Edmonton)
- 4th Canadian Ranger Patrol Group – (Group HQ in Victoria, BC. Ranger Company HQs in Victoria, Edmonton and Winnipeg, plus Junior Canadian Ranger Company HQ also in Victoria. 42 Canadian Ranger Patrols (platoon size) across the four western provinces)
- 3rd Canadian Division Training Centre – (CFB Wainwright)
1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade GroupEdit
|1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group||CFB Edmonton|
|1 CMBG Headquarters & Signal Squadron||CFB Edmonton|
|1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery||Artillery||CFB Shilo|
|Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)||Armoured||CFB Edmonton|
|1 Combat Engineer Regiment||Combat engineers||CFB Edmonton|
|1st Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry||Mechanized infantry||CFB Edmonton|
|2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry||Mechanized infantry||CFB Shilo|
|3rd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry||Light infantry||CFB Edmonton|
|1 Service Battalion||Logistic Service and Support||CFB Edmonton|
3rd Canadian Division Support GroupEdit
3rd Division Support Group is headquartered out of CFB Edmonton. The Support Group is responsible for providing service and support to the units of 3rd Canadian Division.
|3rd Canadian Division Support Group Headquarters||CFB Edmonton|
|3 CDSB Edmonton|
|Royal Canadian Artillery Band|
38 Canadian Brigade GroupEdit
38 Canadian Brigade Group (38 CBG) is a Reserve Force brigade group based out of Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is composed of units in Saskatchewan, Manitoba and eastwards into Ontario to Thunder Bay, Ontario.
|38 Canadian Brigade Group||Type||Location|
|38 Canadian Brigade Group Headquarters||Winnipeg|
|The Saskatchewan Dragoons||Armoured reconnaissance||Moose Jaw|
|The Fort Garry Horse||Armoured reconnaissance||Winnipeg|
|10th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA||Artillery||Regina and Yorkton|
|26th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA||Artillery||Brandon and Portage la Prairie|
|116th Independent Field Battery, RCA||Artillery||Kenora|
|38 Combat Engineer Regiment||Combat engineers||Saskatoon, Winnipeg|
|38 Signal Regiment||Communications||Regina, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay|
|The Royal Winnipeg Rifles||Light infantry||Winnipeg|
|The Lake Superior Scottish Regiment||Light infantry||Thunder Bay|
|The North Saskatchewan Regiment||Light infantry||Saskatoon and Prince Albert|
|The Royal Regina Rifles||Light infantry||Regina|
|The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada||Light infantry||Winnipeg|
|38 Service Battalion||Service and support||Regina, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay|
39 Canadian Brigade GroupEdit
|39 Canadian Brigade Group||Vancouver|
|39 Canadian Brigade Group Headquarters||Vancouver|
|The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)||Armoured reconnaissance||Vancouver|
|The British Columbia Dragoons||Armoured reconnaissance||Kelowna and Vernon|
|5th (British Columbia) Field Artillery Regiment, RCA||Artillery||Victoria and Nanaimo|
|15th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA||Artillery||Vancouver and Aldergrove|
|39 Combat Engineer Regiment||Combat engineers||Vancouver, Chilliwack and Trail|
|39 Signal Regiment||Communications||Vancouver, Victoria and Nanaimo|
|The Rocky Mountain Rangers||Light infantry||Kamloops and Prince George|
|The Royal Westminster Regiment||Light infantry||New Westminster and Chilliwack|
|The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada||Light infantry||Vancouver|
|The Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Mary's)||Light infantry||Victoria, Nanaimo and Comox|
|39 Service Battalion||Service and support||Richmond and Victoria|
41 Canadian Brigade GroupEdit
41 Canadian Brigade Group (41 CBG) is a Reserve Force brigade group based out of Calgary, Alberta. The units forming the brigade group are from the province of Alberta, as well as a company based out of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories.
|41 Canadian Brigade Group||Calgary|
|41 Canadian Brigade Group Headquarters||Calgary|
|The South Alberta Light Horse||Armoured reconnaissance||Edmonton and Medicine Hat|
|The King's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC)||Armoured reconnaissance||Calgary|
|20th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA||Artillery||Edmonton and Red Deer|
|20th Independent Field Battery, RCA||Artillery||Lethbridge|
|41 Combat Engineer Regiment||Combat engineers||Calgary and Edmonton|
|41 Signal Regiment||Communications||Calgary, Edmonton, and Red Deer|
|The Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry)||Light infantry||Edmonton and Yellowknife|
|The Calgary Highlanders||Light infantry||Calgary|
|41 Service Battalion||Service and support||Calgary and Edmonton|
In August 1916, individual battalions of the Canadian Corps were ordered to wear a distinguishing patch to better provide command and control in battle. Battalions were represented by a series of coloured geometric patches that corresponded to their seniority within the brigades of the overseas divisions of the corps. These shapes were sewn over top of a rectangle 3 inches (7.6 cm) wide by 2 inches (5.1 cm) tall which was also colour coded by division, and worn on the upper rear of each soldier's uniform jacket and greatcoat, just below the collar. The location was quickly moved from the collar to the sleeve. The 3rd Division was originally ordered to wear white patches, followed ten days later by an order changing the colour to black and the location. In May 1917, the commander of the 3rd Division published a routine order stating that, because the black patches were too difficult to see, French grey was to be worn instead.
The patch was revived in 1941. The 3rd Canadian Division, CAOF, wore a French grey patch with a 1⁄2-inch (1.3 cm)-wide French grey bar added horizontally underneath the division patch to distinguish it from the war service 3rd Division.
In 2014, the revived 3rd Canadian Division adopted a French grey formation patch. After much debate, Pantone Grey 535C was adopted. The Pantone colour is actually "Blue Range" and was arrived at by comparison to artifacts in various historical exhibits. The colour was approved by the Directorate of History and Heritage, a sub-group of the Department of National Defence.
- Cox, Elise "Small patch carries huge honour for 3 Cdn Div" The Western Sentinel 19 June 2014
- 3rd Canadian Division page at canadiansoldiers.com
- 3rd Canadian Division retrieved 20 November 2007
- canadiansoldiers.com page on 3rd Canadian Infantry Division
- Tonner, Mark W. On Active Service (Service Publications, Ottawa, ON) ISBN 1-894581-44-X
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- Martin, CC Battle Diary, p.16
- Graves, Donald E. Century of Service
- "Queen's Own Rifles". Juno Beach. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
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- Zaloga, Johnson & Taylor 2008, pp. 14–16.
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- Law, Clive M. Distinguishing Patches (Service Publications, Ottawa, ON, 2nd ed. 2008.) ISBN 978-1-894581-50-9 p.46
- "Restoring Canadian Army Identity SITREP 04 – 28 April 2014"
- Western Sentinel article accessed online 11 Sep 2014
- Fowler, Robert (1995). Valour in the Victory Campaign: The 3rd Canadian Infantry Division Gallantry Decorations. General Store Publishing House. ISBN 1-896182-15-1.
- Saunders, Tim (2004). Juno Beach: 3rd Canadian & 79th Armoured Divisions. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2792-3.
- Goddard, Lance (2004). D-Day: Juno Beach, Canada's 24 Hours of Destiny. Dundurn Press. ISBN 1-55002-492-2.
- Zuehlke, Mark (2005). Juno Beach: Canada's D-Day Victory – June 6, 1944. Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 1-55365-050-6.
- Zaloga, Steven J.; Johnson, Hugh; Taylor, Chris (2008). German V-Weapon Sites 1943–45. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-247-9.