30 by 30 (or 30x30) is a worldwide initiative for governments to designate 30% of Earth's land and ocean area as protected areas by 2030.[1][2] The target was proposed by a 2019 article in Science Advances "A Global Deal for Nature: Guiding principles, milestones, and targets", highlighting the need for expanded nature conservation efforts to mitigate climate change.[3][4] Launched by the High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People in 2020, more than 50 nations had agreed to the initiative by January 2021,[5] which has increased to more than 100 countries by October 2022, including Australia.[6] 30 by 30 will be discussed at the COP15 meeting of the Convention on Biological Diversity.[7] This includes the G7[8] and European Union.

Percentage of land in protected areas by country, 2017

$5b funding called the “Protecting Our Planet Challenge” was announced for the initiative in September 2021.[9]

The initiative has attracted controversy over indigenous rights issues.[1]

European UnionEdit

The European Commission's Biodiversity strategy for 2030 was proposed on May 20, 2020, as the European Union's contribution to a post-2020 global biodiversity framework. The strategy contains several biodiversity-related commitments and actions to be delivered by 2030, including:[10]

  • increasing the European Union's network of terrestrial and marine protected areas, by expanding Natura 2000 areas, and providing strict protection of areas with very high biodiversity and climate value.
  • restore more degraded ecosystems and manage them sustainably, by proposing binding nature restoration targets.
  • strengthening governance of European Union biodiversity efforts, including expanded funding, improving implementation and tracking, and integrating biodiversity goals into public and business decision-making.

The biodiversity strategy is a core part of the European Green Deal, and also intended to support green recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic.[10]

United StatesEdit

On January 27 2021, President Joe Biden issued an executive order on "Tackling the Climate Crisis at Home and Abroad". Among several initiatives to address the climate crisis, the order directed federal departments to issue a report within 90 days "recommending steps that the United States should take, working with State, local, Tribal, and territorial governments, agricultural and forest landowners, fishermen, and other key stakeholders, to achieve the goal of conserving at least 30 percent of our lands and waters by 2030."[11]

On 6 May 2022, the Biden administration issued Conserving and Restoring America the Beautiful, a preliminary report to the National Climate Task Force outlining the proposed principles, measures, and early focus areas for a national "ten-year, locally-led campaign to conserve and restore the lands and waters upon which we all depend". Participating federal agencies included the U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Commerce, and Council on Environmental Quality.[12]

The report identified eight principles to guide the effort:[12]

  • Pursue a Collaborative and Inclusive Approach to Conservation
  • Conserve America’s Lands and Waters for the Benefit of All People
  • Support Locally Led and Locally Designed Conservation Efforts
  • Honor Tribal Sovereignty and Support the Priorities of Tribal Nations
  • Pursue Conservation and Restoration Approaches that Create Jobs and Support Healthy Communities
  • Honor Private Property Rights and Support the Voluntary Stewardship Efforts of Private Landowners and Fishers
  • Use Science as a Guide
  • Build on Existing Tools and Strategies with an Emphasis on Flexibility and Adaptive Approaches

The report outlined six early focus initiatives:[12]

  • Create more parks and safe outdoor opportunities in nature-deprived communities
  • Support Tribally led conservation and restoration priorities
  • Expand collaborative conservation of fish and wildlife habitats and corridors
  • Increase access for outdoor recreation
  • Incentivize and reward the voluntary conservation efforts of fishers, ranchers, farmers, and forest owners
  • Create jobs by investing in restoration and resilience

The report proposed tracking progress through an American Conservation and Stewardship Atlas, an accessible online database and mapping tool which would provide current information on lands and waters conserved and restored, and an annual America the Beautiful public report, which would track fish and wildlife populations, and progress on conservation and restoration efforts across the country.[12]


On 7 October 2020, California governor Gavin Newsom issued an executive order declaring it "the goal of the State to conserve at least 30 percent of California’s land and coastal waters by 2030", and directing state agencies to develop and report strategies for achieving the goal by February 1, 2022. The order also established a California Biodiversity Collaborative composed of representatives of government agencies, Native tribes, experts, and other stakeholders.[13]

The official report, Pathways to 30x30 California, was issued by the California Natural Resources Agency on 22 April 2022. The report outlines ten pathways, or strategies, to achieving California's biodiversity and protected area goals by 2030:[14]

  1. Accelerate Regionally Led Conservation
  2. Execute Strategic Land Acquisitions
  3. Increase Voluntary Conservation Easements
  4. Enhance Conservation of Existing Public Lands and Coastal Waters
  5. Institutionalize Advance Mitigation
  6. Expand and Accelerate Environmental Restoration and Stewardship
  7. Strengthen Coordination Among Governments
  8. Align Investments to Maximize Conservation Benefits
  9. Advance and Promote Complementary Conservation Measures
  10. Evaluate Conservation Outcomes and Adaptively Manage


  1. ^ a b Mukpo, Ashoka (26 August 2021). "As COP15 approaches, '30 by 30' becomes a conservation battleground". Mongabay Environmental News. Retrieved 2021-10-25.
  2. ^ "30 by 30: why humanity should protect 30 per cent of the ocean by 2030". New Scientist. 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2021-10-25.
  3. ^ Dinerstein, E.; Vynne, C.; Sala, E.; Joshi, A. R.; Fernando, S.; Lovejoy, T. E.; Mayorga, J.; Olson, D.; Asner, G. P.; Baillie, J. E. M.; Burgess, N. D. (19 Apr 2019). "A Global Deal For Nature: Guiding principles, milestones, and targets". Science Advances. 5 (4): eaaw2869. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaw2869. PMC 6474764. PMID 31016243.
  4. ^ Jones, Benji (2021-04-12). "The hottest number in conservation is rooted more in politics than science". Vox. Retrieved 2021-10-25.
  5. ^ Rowling, Megan. "Drive to protect 30% of planet by 2030 grows to 50 nations". Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved 2021-10-25.
  6. ^ Subramaniam, Tara (2022-10-04). "Australia commits to zero extinctions with new plan to protect 30% of land". CNN. Retrieved 2022-10-12.
  7. ^ "High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People". HAC for Nature and People. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  8. ^ "G7 commits to end support for coal-fired power stations this year". euronews. 22 May 2021. Retrieved 2021-10-29.
  9. ^ Rendon, Jim (September 28, 2021). "$5B conservation plan offers new approach, but faces hurdles". AP NEWS. Retrieved 2021-10-25.
  10. ^ a b "Biodiversity strategy for 2030". European Commission. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  11. ^ "Executive Order on Tackling the Climate Crisis at Home and Abroad". The White House. 27 January 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  12. ^ a b c d "Conserving and Restoring America the Beautiful" (PDF). US Department of Interior. 6 May 2022. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  13. ^ "Executive Order N-82-20" (PDF). State of California. 7 October 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  14. ^ "30x30 California". 30x30 California. California Natural Resources Agency. Retrieved 26 June 2022.

External linksEdit