Isoamyl alcohol (also known as isopentyl alcohol) is a colorless liquid with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH. It is one of several isomers of amyl alcohol. It is an ingredient in the production of banana oil, an ester found in nature and also produced as a flavouring in industry. It is a common fusel alcohol, produced as a major by-product of ethanol fermentation. It is also an ingredient of Kovac's reagent, used for the bacterial diagnostic indole test.
|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||88.148 g/mol|
|Appearance||Clear, colorless liquid|
|Density||0.8104 g/cm3 at 20 °C|
|Melting point||−117 °C (−179 °F; 156 K)|
|Boiling point||131.1 °C (268.0 °F; 404.2 K)|
|slightly soluble, 28 g/L|
|Solubility||very soluble in acetone, diethyl ether, ethanol|
|Vapor pressure||28 mmHg (20°C)|
Heat capacity (C)
Std enthalpy of
|-356.4 kJ·mol−1 (liquid) |
-300.7 kJ·mol−1 (gas)
|Flash point||43 °C (109 °F; 316 K)|
|350 °C (662 °F; 623 K)|
|Explosive limits||1.2 – 9%|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|3438 mg/kg (rabbit, oral)|
1300 mg/kg (rat, oral)
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 100 ppm (360 mg/m3)|
|TWA 100 ppm (360 mg/m3) ST 125 ppm (450 mg/m3)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
It is one of the components of the aroma of Tuber melanosporum, the black truffle. It has been identified as a chemical in the pheromone used by hornets to attract other members of the hive to attack.
- Lide, David R., ed. (1998). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 3–374, 5–42, 6–188, 8–102, 15–22. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0348". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Straka, M.; van Genderen, A.; Růžička, K.; Růžička, V. Heat Capacities in the Solid and in the Liquid Phase of Isomeric Pentanols. J. Chem. Eng. Data 2007, 52, 794-802.
- "Isoamyl alcohol". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Zumbo, P. "Phenol-chloroform Extraction" (PDF). WEILL CORNELL MEDICAL COLLEGE P. ZUMBO LABORATORY OF CHRISTOPHER E. MASON, PH.D. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- Green, Michael; Sambrook, Joseph. "Purification of Nucleic Acids: Extraction with Phenol-Chloroform". Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 1936113422.
- Wilson, Calum & Davies, Noel & Corkrey, Ross & J. Wilson, Annabel & M. Mathews, Alison & C. Westmore, Guy. (2017). Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis determines association of individual potato foliage volatiles with onion thrips preference, cultivar and plant age. PLOS ONE. 12. e0181831. 10.1371/journal.pone.0181831.