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3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug. In terms of pharmacology, MDA acts most importantly as a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA). Due to its euphoriant and hallucinogenic effects, the drug is a controlled substance and its possession and sale are illegal in most countries. MDA is closely related to the more widely used MDMA (ecstasy), which has similar properties.

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine
INN: Tenamfetamine
MDA-2D-skeletal.svg
MDA molecule ball.png
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Oral, sublingual, insufflation, intravenous
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP extensively involved)
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.230.706
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H13NO2
Molar mass 179.22 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Contents

UsesEdit

MedicalEdit

MDA currently has no accepted medical use.

RecreationalEdit

Although illegal, MDA is bought, sold, and used as a recreational 'love drug', due to its enhancement of mood and empathy.[1] A recreational dose of MDA is commonly between 100 and 160 mg.[2]

Adverse effectsEdit

OverdoseEdit

InteractionsEdit

PharmacologyEdit

PharmacodynamicsEdit

MDA is a substrate of the serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and vesicular monoamine transporters, as well as a TAAR1 agonist,[4][5] and for these reasons acts as a reuptake inhibitor and releasing agent of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (that is, it is an SNDRA).[6] It is also an agonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A,[7] 5-HT2B,[8] and 5-HT2C receptors[9] and shows affinity for the α2A-, α2B-, and α2C-adrenergic receptors and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors.[10]

The (S)-optical isomer of MDA is more potent than the (R)-optical isomer as a psychostimulant, possessing greater affinity for the three monoamine transporters.

In terms of the subjective and behavioral effects of MDA, it is thought that serotonin release is required for its empathogen-entactogen effects, release of dopamine and norepinephrine is responsible for its psychostimulant effects, dopamine release is necessary for its euphoriant (rewarding and addictive) effects, and direct agonism of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is causative of its psychedelic effects.[medical citation needed]

Comparison with MDMAEdit

The effect on serotonin may explain the similar entactogenic effects of MDMA and MDA. However, (S)-MDA has higher potency as an agonist of the 5-HT2A receptor than (R)-MDMA; thus MDA tends to cause more psychedelic-like effects, such as visual hallucinations. MDMA can also produce psychedelic-like visual effects, though these are generally less pronounced than those of MDA or require higher doses to become apparent. Relative to MDMA, MDA is also a more potent releasing agent of norepinephrine and dopamine and hence is more stimulating in comparison. In addition, MDA is notably several-fold more neurotoxic to serotonergic neurons in comparison to MDMA.[medical citation needed]

PharmacokineticsEdit

The duration of the drug has been reported as about 6 to 8 hours.[2]

ChemistryEdit

MDA is a substituted methylenedioxyated phenethylamine and amphetamine derivative. In relation to other phenethylamines and amphetamines, it is the 3,4-methylenedioxy, α-methyl derivative of β-phenylethylamine, the 3,4-methylenedioxy derivative of amphetamine, and the N-demethyl derivative of MDMA.

SynonymsEdit

In addition to 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA is also known by other chemical synonyms such as the following:

  • α-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxy-β-phenylethylamine
  • 1-(3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-propanamine
  • 1-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-propanamine

SynthesisEdit

MDA is typically synthesized from essential oils such as safrole or piperonal. Common approaches from these precursors include:

 

Detection in body fluidsEdit

MDA may be quantitated in blood, plasma or urine to monitor for use, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death. Some drug abuse screening programs rely on hair, saliva, or sweat as specimens. Most commercial amphetamine immunoassay screening tests cross-react significantly with MDA and major metabolites of MDMA, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances. The concentrations of MDA in the blood or urine of a person who has taken only MDMA are, in general, less than 10% those of the parent drug.[20][21][22]

DerivativesEdit

MDA constitutes part of the core structure of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist protokylol.

HistoryEdit

MDA was first synthesized by C. Mannich and W. Jacobsohn in 1910.[14] It was first ingested in July 1930 by Gordon Alles who later licensed the drug to Smith, Kline & French.[23] MDA was first used in animal tests in 1939, and human trials began in 1941 in the exploration of possible therapies for Parkinson's disease. From 1949 to 1957, more than 500 human subjects were given MDA in an investigation of its potential use as an antidepressant and/or anorectic by Smith, Kline & French. The United States Army also experimented with the drug, code named EA-1298, while working to develop a truth drug or incapacitating agent. Harold Blauer[24] died in January 1953 after being intravenously injected, without his knowledge nor consent, with 450 mg of the drug as part of Project MKUltra. MDA was patented as a cough suppressant by H. D. Brown in 1958, as an ataractic by Smith, Kline & French in 1960, and as an anorectic under the trade name "Amphedoxamine" in 1961. MDA began to appear on the recreational drug scene around 1963 to 1964. It was then inexpensive and readily available as a research chemical from several scientific supply houses. Several researchers, including Claudio Naranjo and Richard Yensen, have explored MDA in the field of psychotherapy.[25][26]

Society and cultureEdit

NameEdit

When MDA was under development as a potential pharmaceutical drug, it was given the INN tenamfetamine.

Legal statusEdit

AustraliaEdit

MDA is schedule 9 prohibited substance under the Poisons Standards.[27] A schedule 9 substance is listed as a "Substances which may be abused or misused, the manufacture, possession, sale or use of which should be prohibited by law except when required for medical or scientific research, or for analytical, teaching or training purposes with approval of Commonwealth and/or State or Territory Health Authorities."[27]

United StatesEdit

MDA is a Schedule I controlled substance in the US.

ResearchEdit

In 2010, the ability of MDA to invoke mystical experiences and alter vision in healthy volunteers was studied.[28]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Monte AP, Marona-Lewicka D, Cozzi NV, Nichols DE (1993). "Synthesis and pharmacological examination of benzofuran, indan, and tetralin analogues of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 36 (23): 3700–3706. PMID 8246240. doi:10.1021/jm00075a027. 
  2. ^ a b Baggott, MJ; Siegrist, JD; Galloway, GP; Robertson, LC; Coyle, JR; Mendelson, JE. "Investigating the Mechanisms of Hallucinogen-Induced Visions Using 3,4-Methylenedioxeamphetamine (MDA): A Randomized Controlled Trial in Humans". PLOS ONE. 5: e14074. PMC 2996283 . PMID 21152030. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014074. 
  3. ^ Diaz, Jaime. How Drugs Influence Behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1996.
  4. ^ Lewin AH, Miller GM, Gilmour B (December 2011). "Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a stereoselective binding site for compounds in the amphetamine class". Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19 (23): 7044–8. PMC 3236098 . PMID 22037049. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.10.007. 
  5. ^ Wallach, J.V. (2009). "Endogenous hallucinogens as ligands of the trace amine receptors: A possible role in sensory perception". Medical Hypotheses. 72 (1): 91–94. ISSN 0306-9877. PMID 18805646. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.07.052. 
  6. ^ Rothman RB, Baumann MH (2006). "Therapeutic potential of monoamine transporter substrates". Curr Top Med Chem. 6 (17): 1845–59. PMID 17017961. doi:10.2174/156802606778249766. 
  7. ^ Giuseppe Di Giovanni; Vincenzo Di Matteo; Ennio Esposito (2008). Serotonin-dopamine Interaction: Experimental Evidence and Therapeutic Relevance. Elsevier. pp. 294–. ISBN 978-0-444-53235-0. 
  8. ^ Rothman, Richard B; Baumann, Michael H (2009). "Serotonergic drugs and valvular heart disease". Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 8 (3): 317–329. ISSN 1474-0338. PMC 2695569 . PMID 19505264. doi:10.1517/14740330902931524. 
  9. ^ Nash JF, Roth BL, Brodkin JD, Nichols DE, Gudelsky GA (1994). "Effect of the R(-) and S(+) isomers of MDA and MDMA on phosphatidyl inositol turnover in cultured cells expressing 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors". Neurosci. Lett. 177 (1–2): 111–5. PMID 7824160. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(94)90057-4. 
  10. ^ Manzoni, Olivier Jacques; Ray, Thomas S. (2010). "Psychedelics and the Human Receptorome". PLoS ONE. 5 (2): e9019. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 2814854 . PMID 20126400. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009019. 
  11. ^ Muszynski, I.E. (1961). "Production of some amphetamine derivatives". Acta poloniae pharmaceutica. 18: 471–478. PMID 14477621. 
  12. ^ a b c Shulgin, Alexander; Manning, Tania; Daley, Paul (2011). The Shulgin Index, Volume One: Psychedelic Phenethylamines and Related Compounds (1st ed.). Berkeley, CA: Transform Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780963009630. 
  13. ^ Noggle, FT Jr; DeRuiter, J.; Long, MJ. (1986). "Spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic identification of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine and its N-methyl and N-ethyl homologs". Journal Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 69 (4): 681–686. PMID 2875058. 
  14. ^ a b Mannich, C.; Jacobsohn, W.; Mannich, Hr. C. (1910). "Über Oxyphenyl-alkylamine und Dioxyphenyl-alkylamine". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 41 (1): 189–197. doi:10.1002/cber.19100430126. 
  15. ^ Ho, Beng-Thong; McIsaac, William M.; An, Rong; Tansey, L. Wayne; Walker, Kenneth E.; Englert Jr., Leo F.; Noel, Michael B. (1970). "Analogs of a-methylphenethylamine". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (1): 26–30. PMID 5412110. doi:10.1021/jm00295a007. 
  16. ^ Butterick, John R.; Unrau, A. M. (1974). "Reduction of β-nitrostyrene with sodium bis-(2-methoxyethoxy)-aluminium dihydride. A convenient route to substituted phenylisopropylamines". Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications. 8 (8): 307–308. doi:10.1039/C39740000307. 
  17. ^ Toshitaka, Ohshita; Hiroaka, Ando (1992). "Synthesis of Phenethylamine Derivatives as Hallucinogen" (PDF). Japanese Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 38 (6): 571–580. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  18. ^ Shulgin, Alexander & Shulgin, Ann (1991). PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Lafayette, CA: Transform Press. ISBN 9780963009609. 
  19. ^ Elks, J.; Hey, D. H. (1943). "7. β-3 : 4-Methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine". J. Chem. Soc. 0 (0): 15–16. ISSN 0368-1769. doi:10.1039/JR9430000015. 
  20. ^ Kolbrich EA, Goodwin RS, Gorelick DA, Hayes RJ, Stein EA, Huestis MA. Plasma pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine after controlled oral administration to young adults. Ther. Drug Monit. 30: 320–332, 2008.
  21. ^ Barnes AJ, De Martinis BS, Gorelick DA, Goodwin RS, Kolbrich EA, Huestis MA (2009). "Disposition of MDMA and metabolites in human sweat following controlled MDMA administration" (PDF). Clinical Chemistry. 55 (3): 454–62. PMC 2669283 . PMID 19168553. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.117093. 
  22. ^ R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 9th edition, Biomedical Publications, Seal Beach, California, 2011, pp. 1078–1080.
  23. ^ The First MDA trip and the measurement of ‘mystical experience’ after MDA, LSD, and Psilocybin http://psychedelicresearch.org/?p=45[permanent dead link]
  24. ^ The History Channel documented details of his death here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ySw-0uY4CUA See minute 2:38 onward.
  25. ^ Naranjo, C.; Shulgin, A. T.; Sargent, T. (1967). "Evaluation of 3, 4-methylenedioxeamphetamine (MDA) as an adjunct to psychotherapy". Pharmacology. 17 (4): 359–364. doi:10.1159/000137100. 
  26. ^ Yensen, R.; Di Leo, F. B.; Rhead, J. C.; Richards, W. A.; Soskin, R. A.; Turek, B.; Kurland, A. A. (1976). "MDA-assisted psychotherapy with neurotic outpatients: a pilot study". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 163 (4): 233–245. PMID 972325. doi:10.1097/00005053-197610000-00002. 
  27. ^ a b Poisons Standard (October 2015) https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01534/Html/Text#_Toc420496379
  28. ^ Baggott, M. J.; Siegrist, J. D.; Galloway, G. P.; Robertson, L. C.; Coyle, J. R.; Mendelson, J. E. (2010). "Investigating the mechanisms of hallucinogen-induced visions using 3, 4-methylenedioxeamphetamine (MDA): a randomized controlled trial in humans". PLOS ONE. 5 (12): e14074. PMC 2996283 . PMID 21152030. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014074. 

External linksEdit