3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug. In terms of pharmacology, MDA acts most importantly as a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA). Due to its euphoriant and hallucinogenic effects, the drug is a controlled substance and its possession and sale are illegal in most countries.
|Oral, sublingual, insufflation, intravenous|
|Metabolism||Hepatic (CYP extensively involved)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||179.22 g/mol|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
MDA is rarely sought after as a recreational drug compared to other drugs in the amphetamine family, however it remains an important and widely used drug due to it being a primary metabolite, the product of hepatic N-dealkylation, of MDMA (ecstasy), In addition, it's not uncommon to find MDA as an adulterant of illicitly bought MDMA.
MDA currently has no accepted medical use.
Symptoms of acute toxicity may include agitation, sweating, increased blood pressure and heart rate, dramatic increase in body temperature, convulsions, and death. Death is usually caused by cardiac effects and subsequent hemorrhaging in the brain (stroke).[medical citation needed]
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2017)|
MDA is a substrate of the serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and vesicular monoamine transporters, as well as a TAAR1 agonist, and for these reasons acts as a reuptake inhibitor and releasing agent of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (that is, it is an SNDRA). It is also an agonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors and shows affinity for the α2A-, α2B-, and α2C-adrenergic receptors and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors.
In terms of the subjective and behavioral effects of MDA, it is thought that serotonin release is required for its empathogen-entactogen effects, release of dopamine and norepinephrine is responsible for its psychostimulant effects, dopamine release is necessary for its euphoriant (rewarding and addictive) effects, and direct agonism of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is causative of its psychedelic effects.[medical citation needed]
Comparison with MDMAEdit
The effect on serotonin may explain the similar entactogenic effects of MDMA and MDA. However, (S)-MDA has higher potency as an agonist of the 5-HT2A receptor than (R)-MDMA; thus MDA tends to cause more psychedelic-like effects, such as visual hallucinations. MDMA can also produce psychedelic-like visual effects, though these are generally less pronounced than those of MDA or require higher doses to become apparent. Relative to MDMA, MDA is also a more potent releasing agent of norepinephrine and dopamine and hence is more stimulating in comparison. In addition, MDA is notably several-fold more neurotoxic to serotonergic neurons in comparison to MDMA.[medical citation needed]
The duration of the drug has been reported as about 6 to 8 hours.
MDA is a substituted methylenedioxyated phenethylamine and amphetamine derivative. In relation to other phenethylamines and amphetamines, it is the 3,4-methylenedioxy, α-methyl derivative of β-phenylethylamine, the 3,4-methylenedioxy derivative of amphetamine, and the N-demethyl derivative of MDMA.
In addition to 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA is also known by other chemical synonyms such as the following:
- Reaction of safrole's alkene functional group with a halogen containing mineral acid followed by amine alkylation.
- Wacker oxidation of safrole to yield 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylpropan-2-one (MDP2P) followed by reductive amination or via reduction of its oxime.
- Henry reaction of piperonal with nitroethane followed by nitro compound reduction.
- Darzens reaction on heliotropin was also done by J. Elks, et al. This gives MDP2P, which was then subjected to a Leuckart reaction.
Detection in body fluidsEdit
MDA may be quantitated in blood, plasma or urine to monitor for use, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death. Some drug abuse screening programs rely on hair, saliva, or sweat as specimens. Most commercial amphetamine immunoassay screening tests cross-react significantly with MDA and major metabolites of MDMA, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances. The concentrations of MDA in the blood or urine of a person who has taken only MDMA are, in general, less than 10% those of the parent drug.
MDA was first synthesized by C. Mannich and W. Jacobsohn in 1910. It was first ingested in July 1930 by Gordon Alles who later licensed the drug to Smith, Kline & French. MDA was first used in animal tests in 1939, and human trials began in 1941 in the exploration of possible therapies for Parkinson's disease. From 1949 to 1957, more than 500 human subjects were given MDA in an investigation of its potential use as an antidepressant and/or anorectic by Smith, Kline & French. The United States Army also experimented with the drug, code named EA-1298, while working to develop a truth drug or incapacitating agent. Harold Blauer died in January 1953 after being intravenously injected, without his knowledge nor consent, with 450 mg of the drug as part of Project MKUltra. MDA was patented as a cough suppressant by H. D. Brown in 1958, as an ataractic by Smith, Kline & French in 1960, and as an anorectic under the trade name "Amphedoxamine" in 1961. MDA began to appear on the recreational drug scene around 1963 to 1964. It was then inexpensive and readily available as a research chemical from several scientific supply houses. Several researchers, including Claudio Naranjo and Richard Yensen, have explored MDA in the field of psychotherapy.
Society and cultureEdit
When MDA was under development as a potential pharmaceutical drug, it was given the international nonproprietary name (INN) of tenamfetamine.
MDA is schedule 9 prohibited substance under the Poisons Standards. A schedule 9 substance is listed as a "Substances which may be abused or misused, the manufacture, possession, sale or use of which should be prohibited by law except when required for medical or scientific research, or for analytical, teaching or training purposes with approval of Commonwealth and/or State or Territory Health Authorities."
MDA is a Schedule I controlled substance in the US.
In 2010, the ability of MDA to invoke mystical experiences and alter vision in healthy volunteers was studied.
- Crean, R. D.; Davis, S. A.; Von Huben, S. N.; Lay, C. C.; Katner, S. N.; Taffe, M. A. (2006-10-13). "Effects of (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, (±)3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and methamphetamine on temperature and activity in rhesus macaques". Neuroscience. 142 (2): 515–525. PMC . PMID 16876329. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.06.033.
- de la Torre, R; Farre, M; Roset, Pn; Pizzaro, N; Abanades, S; Segura, M; Segura, M; Camí, J (2004). "Human pharmacology of MDMA: pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and disposition.". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 26: 137–144. PMID 15228154. doi:10.1097/00007691-200404000-00009.
- EcstasyData.org. "EcstasyData.org: Test Result Statistics: Substances by Year". www.ecstasydata.org. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
- "Trans European Drug Information". idpc.net. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
- Monte AP, Marona-Lewicka D, Cozzi NV, Nichols DE (1993). "Synthesis and pharmacological examination of benzofuran, indan, and tetralin analogues of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 36 (23): 3700–3706. PMID 8246240. doi:10.1021/jm00075a027.
- Baggott, MJ; Siegrist, JD; Galloway, GP; Robertson, LC; Coyle, JR; Mendelson, JE. "Investigating the Mechanisms of Hallucinogen-Induced Visions Using 3,4-Methylenedioxeamphetamine (MDA): A Randomized Controlled Trial in Humans". PLOS ONE. 5: e14074. PMC . PMID 21152030. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014074.
- Herndon, Joseph M.; Cholanians, Aram B.; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J. (March 2014). "Glial Cell Response to 3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and Its Metabolites". Toxicological Sciences. 138 (1): 130–138. ISSN 1096-6080. PMC . PMID 24299738. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kft275.
- Kalant, Harold (2001-10-02). "The pharmacology and toxicology of "ecstasy" (MDMA) and related drugs". CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 165 (7): 917–928. ISSN 0820-3946. PMC . PMID 11599334.
- Diaz, Jaime. How Drugs Influence Behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1996.
- Lewin AH, Miller GM, Gilmour B (December 2011). "Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a stereoselective binding site for compounds in the amphetamine class". Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19 (23): 7044–8. PMC . PMID 22037049. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.10.007.
- Wallach, J.V. (2009). "Endogenous hallucinogens as ligands of the trace amine receptors: A possible role in sensory perception". Medical Hypotheses. 72 (1): 91–94. ISSN 0306-9877. PMID 18805646. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.07.052.
- Rothman RB, Baumann MH (2006). "Therapeutic potential of monoamine transporter substrates". Curr Top Med Chem. 6 (17): 1845–59. PMID 17017961. doi:10.2174/156802606778249766.
- Giuseppe Di Giovanni; Vincenzo Di Matteo; Ennio Esposito (2008). Serotonin-dopamine Interaction: Experimental Evidence and Therapeutic Relevance. Elsevier. pp. 294–. ISBN 978-0-444-53235-0.
- Rothman, Richard B; Baumann, Michael H (2009). "Serotonergic drugs and valvular heart disease". Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 8 (3): 317–329. ISSN 1474-0338. PMC . PMID 19505264. doi:10.1517/14740330902931524.
- Nash JF, Roth BL, Brodkin JD, Nichols DE, Gudelsky GA (1994). "Effect of the R(-) and S(+) isomers of MDA and MDMA on phosphatidyl inositol turnover in cultured cells expressing 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors". Neurosci. Lett. 177 (1–2): 111–5. PMID 7824160. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(94)90057-4.
- Manzoni, Olivier Jacques; Ray, Thomas S. (2010). "Psychedelics and the Human Receptorome". PLoS ONE. 5 (2): e9019. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC . PMID 20126400. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009019.
- Muszynski, I.E. (1961). "Production of some amphetamine derivatives". Acta poloniae pharmaceutica. 18: 471–478. PMID 14477621.
- Shulgin, Alexander; Manning, Tania; Daley, Paul (2011). The Shulgin Index, Volume One: Psychedelic Phenethylamines and Related Compounds (1st ed.). Berkeley, CA: Transform Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780963009630.
- Noggle, FT Jr; DeRuiter, J.; Long, MJ. (1986). "Spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic identification of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine and its N-methyl and N-ethyl homologs". Journal Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 69 (4): 681–686. PMID 2875058.
- Mannich, C.; Jacobsohn, W.; Mannich, Hr. C. (1910). "Über Oxyphenyl-alkylamine und Dioxyphenyl-alkylamine". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 41 (1): 189–197. doi:10.1002/cber.19100430126.
- Ho, Beng-Thong; McIsaac, William M.; An, Rong; Tansey, L. Wayne; Walker, Kenneth E.; Englert Jr., Leo F.; Noel, Michael B. (1970). "Analogs of a-methylphenethylamine". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (1): 26–30. PMID 5412110. doi:10.1021/jm00295a007.
- Butterick, John R.; Unrau, A. M. (1974). "Reduction of β-nitrostyrene with sodium bis-(2-methoxyethoxy)-aluminium dihydride. A convenient route to substituted phenylisopropylamines". Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications. 8 (8): 307–308. doi:10.1039/C39740000307.
- Toshitaka, Ohshita; Hiroaka, Ando (1992). "Synthesis of Phenethylamine Derivatives as Hallucinogen" (PDF). Japanese Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 38 (6): 571–580. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- Shulgin, Alexander & Shulgin, Ann (1991). PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Lafayette, CA: Transform Press. ISBN 9780963009609.
- Elks, J.; Hey, D. H. (1943). "7. β-3 : 4-Methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine". J. Chem. Soc. 0 (0): 15–16. ISSN 0368-1769. doi:10.1039/JR9430000015.
- Kolbrich EA, Goodwin RS, Gorelick DA, Hayes RJ, Stein EA, Huestis MA. Plasma pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine after controlled oral administration to young adults. Ther. Drug Monit. 30: 320–332, 2008.
- Barnes AJ, De Martinis BS, Gorelick DA, Goodwin RS, Kolbrich EA, Huestis MA (2009). "Disposition of MDMA and metabolites in human sweat following controlled MDMA administration" (PDF). Clinical Chemistry. 55 (3): 454–62. PMC . PMID 19168553. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.117093.
- R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 9th edition, Biomedical Publications, Seal Beach, California, 2011, pp. 1078–1080.
- "The First MDA trip and the measurement of ‘mystical experience’ after MDA, LSD, and Psilocybin". Psychedelic research. July 18, 2008. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012.
- The History Channel documented details of his death here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ySw-0uY4CUA See minute 2:38 onward.
- Naranjo, C.; Shulgin, A. T.; Sargent, T. (1967). "Evaluation of 3, 4-methylenedioxeamphetamine (MDA) as an adjunct to psychotherapy". Pharmacology. 17 (4): 359–364. doi:10.1159/000137100.
- Yensen, R.; Di Leo, F. B.; Rhead, J. C.; Richards, W. A.; Soskin, R. A.; Turek, B.; Kurland, A. A. (1976). "MDA-assisted psychotherapy with neurotic outpatients: a pilot study". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 163 (4): 233–245. PMID 972325. doi:10.1097/00005053-197610000-00002.
- Poisons Standard (October 2015) https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01534/Html/Text#_Toc420496379