2005 Tarapacá earthquake
The 2005 Tarapacá earthquake occurred on June 13 at 22:44:33 UTC (18:44:33 local time). Its epicenter was located near Mamiña, in northern Chile about 125 km east-northeast of Iquique, affecting the Tarapacá Region and adjacent parts of Bolivia. It had a magnitude of Mw 7.8 and a maximum felt intensity of VIII (Severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale.
|UTC time||2005-06-13 22:44:33|
|Local date||June 13, 2005|
|Areas affected||Chile, Bolivia|
|Max. intensity||VIII (Severe)|
|Casualties||11 dead, 182 injured|
Chile lies above the destructive plate boundary, where the Nazca Plate is being subducted beneath the South American Plate. In the Tarapacá region the plates converge at a rate of 78 mm per year. This boundary is associated with many large earthquakes, both along the plate interface and within the downgoing slab (Nazca Plate).
The earthquake was an intermediate-depth event, with a hypocentral depth of 115.6 km. The focal mechanism shows that this was a normal fault event, within the subducted Nazca Plate. Finite-fault modelling of the earthquake suggests that the fault plane responsible dips to the west at about 15°.
The greatest damage occurred in northern Chile, although parts of southern Peru and western Bolivia were also affected. The earthquake triggered many landslides, blocking roads and hindering relief efforts. 550 houses were completely destroyed, with at least a further 9,350 damaged. Adobe houses on the plateau in the Andes were particularly badly affected, with more than 80% destroyed in some villages. 11 people were killed and at least a further 200 injured.
Initial efforts concentrated on repairing infrastructure affected by the earthquake. By June 2006 the government reported that most of the repairs to roads and irrigation canals was complete, but that, although work had started on repairing houses and schools, more needed to be done.
The effects of this earthquake on pregnant women were used to investigate the effects of acute stress on child development. The results showed that amongst poorer families, children affected by the earthquake in utero were at least six months behind in cognitive development seven years later compared to their peers in a control group in areas unaffected by the earthquake.
- ANSS. "Tarapacá 2005 : M 7.8 - Tarapaca, Chile". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 27 August 2018
- Rondinel-Oviedo, E.A. "The June 13th, 2005, Mw 7.8 Tarapacá (Chile) Earthquake" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-08-27.
- International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies (27 July 2005). "Chile: Earthquake - Information Bulletin n° 3". Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (August 2005). "Natural Disaster Highlights No.2 - August 2005" (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Government of Chile (June 2006). "Chile: Presidenta anuncia medidas para acelerar Plan de Reconstrucción de Tarapacá" (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- De Witte M. (August 2018). "Acute stress in utero has negative effects later in life among poor children, Stanford sociologist finds". Retrieved 27 August 2018.
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