On 28 October 1995, a fire broke out in the subway system of Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, between the stations Ulduz and Nariman Narimanov. According to official figures, the fire killed 289 people: 286 passengers (including 28 children) and three rescue workers, while 270 people were injured.[1] The fire was deemed to have been caused by an electrical malfunction, but the possibility of sabotage was not excluded.

1995 Baku Metro fire
One of the metro cars after the accident, with broken windows to make way for the escape
Date28 October 1995 (1995-10-28)
6:00 p.m. – ?
LocationBaku Metro, Baku, Azerbaijan
Coordinates40°24′47″N 49°53′17″E / 40.41306°N 49.88806°E / 40.41306; 49.88806
Incident typeFire
CauseElectrical malfunction

Although a number of people who evacuated the train survived,[2] the fire remains the world's deadliest subway disaster.[3] One person, Chingiz Babayev, was posthumously awarded the title of the National Hero of Azerbaijan for saving passengers' lives.[4]

Background edit

The Ulduz and Nariman Narimanov metro stations serve the northern part of Azerbaijan's capital, Baku. The tunnel between them was equipped with a controllable ventilation system, but had a relatively narrow cross-section (height 5.6 metres (18 ft), width 5 metres (16 ft)).[2]

Before 1995 the deadliest subway accident was the Malbone Street wreck of 1918 in New York City, which killed as many as 93 people. The deadliest subway conflagration before 1995 was the Paris Métro train fire of 1903, which killed 84.

Fire edit

The fire, caused by an electrical fault, occurred during the Saturday evening rush hour at about 6:00 p.m. The affected train, consisting of five fully loaded cars, had just left Ulduz station for Nariman Narimanov. The passengers in car number 5 smelled smoke. Later, passengers in car 4 observed white smoke, which soon turned black and caused irritation. The putative electrical malfunction (a sparkover or electric arc in electrical equipment in the rear of the fourth car[2]) stopped the train about 200 meters from Ulduz station. When the train stopped, the tunnel became filled with smoke. The driver reported the incident and demanded that the power be cut. However, lethal emissions of carbon monoxide from the burning synthetic materials in the cars quickly affected the passengers. Because of difficulties opening the doors in one of the cars, the passengers were forced to evacuate through another car. Some 15 minutes after the fire started, the ventilation system was switched to exhaust mode and much of the smoke was drawn in the direction of evacuation. Several people were electrocuted while trying to grasp cables in order to escape the blazing train.[5]

The majority of those killed (including 28 children[6]) were found inside the train, most of them either crushed or trampled to death.[2] Forty bodies were found inside the tunnel.[2] Survivors recalled sparks flying from high-voltage cables just after the train left the Ulduz station. One of the passengers, Tabil Huseynov, 45, described the situation as follows: "As soon as the train entered the tunnel, I saw a flash. Then the flames enveloped the train car, there was a sound of breaking glass, and the lights went out. People started breaking windows to get out. We were starting to suffocate."[7]

The estimated number of victims varied after the fire. Morgue officials reportedly counted at least 303 bodies, while the independent Azerbaijani news agency Turan quoted medical officials as saying the number of people killed was 337.[7] A three-day mourning period was declared.[6] Lukoil rendered $9,000 in financial aid to the families of victims.[8]

Investigation edit

The government inquiry commission concluded that the fire was caused by an electrical fault. The fire started in the traction motor of one railway car.[1] No explosives were found.[9] The commission's chairman, Deputy Prime Minister Abbas Abbasov, mentioned "outdated Soviet" equipment.[7] Yet two mysterious large holes on the side of one of the wrecked carriages were reportedly found and Azeri national TV quoted experts as saying the holes indicated the use of an explosive device. President Heydar Aliyev told a U.S. official that while preliminary information indicated a technical fault, the fire was "possibly an organised act of sabotage".[3]

The Supreme Court of Azerbaijan convicted two persons for criminal negligence. The metro operator was sentenced to 15 years in prison and the station traffic controller 10 years.[10]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b "В Баку поминают жертв страшной трагедии в метро" (in Russian). Vestnik Kavkaza. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e Terje Andersen, Børre J. Paaske. "Railroad and Metro Tunnel Accidents". Lotsberg.net. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  3. ^ a b Phil Reeves (31 October 1995). "Sabotage fear over metro fire". The Independent. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  4. ^ "Azərbaycanın milli qəhrəmanları" (PDF) (in Azerbaijani). National Library of Azerbaijan. 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  5. ^ "October 28, 1995". Britannica (Calendar of Events). Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
  6. ^ a b Phil Reeves (30 October 1995). "Old wiring caused worst metro disaster". The Independent. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  7. ^ a b c "Subway Fire Kills 300 in Caucasus Capital". The New York Times. 30 October 1995. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  8. ^ "Lukoil's presence in Baku". Azerbaijan International. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  9. ^ Edward Mickolus, Susan L. Simmons. Terrorism, 1992–1995: a chronology of events and a selectively annotated bibliography, ABC-CLIO, 1997, p. 880
  10. ^ "Azerbaijani Court Convicts Two in Metro Fire". RIA Novosti. 8 February 1996. Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2010.

External links edit

Further reading edit

  • Wahlstrom, B. The Baku underground railway/metro fire. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Tunnel Incident Management, Korsor, Denmark, 13–15 May 1996