1960 Cypriot legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Cyprus in 1960. The House of Representatives was elected on 31 July 1960.[1] The Communal Chambers were also elected on 7 August.[2] In the House of Representatives 35 seats were elected by Greek Cypriots and 15 by Turkish Cypriots.[3] The result was a victory for the Patriotic Front, which won 30 of the 50 seats. In the Communal Chambers, the Patriotic Front won the majority of seats in the Greek Chamber, whilst the Cyprus Turkish National Union won all seats in the Turkish Chamber.

1960 Cypriot legislative election

31 July 1960 1970 →

All 50 seats in the House of Representatives
  First party Second party Third party
  Noimage.png Noimage.png Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F014934-0068, Fazil Kutschuk.jpg
Leader Glafkos Clerides Ezekias Papaioannou Fazıl Küçük
Party Patriotic Front AKEL KMTB
Leader's seat Nicosia District Nicosia District Did not run
Seats won 30 5 15

Electoral systemEdit

The House of Representatives consisted of 35 Greek members and 15 Turkish members, whilst the Greek Communal Chamber had 26 members and the Turkish Communal Chamber had 30.

The 1959 electoral law divided Cyprus into six multi-member constituencies. Voters could vote for as many candidates as there were seats in their constituency.[4] The electoral system used was Plurality voting.

Constituency Greek Community Seats Turkish Community Seats
Nicosia 12 5
Kyrenia 2 1
Famagusta 7 3
Larnaca 3 2
Limassol 7 2
Paphos 4 2

[5]

CampaignEdit

The Democratic Union led by Themistocles Dervis and Ioannis Clerides did not participate in the elections.[2][4] The Democratic Union had opposed the 1959 electoral law, claiming it favoured the Patriotic Front.[4]

The Patriotic Front and AKEL formed a pact for the elections, with a pre-agreed split of 30 and 5 seats respectively.[4]

The hastily formed Pancyprian Union of Fighters fielded four candidates, with two in Nicosia, one in Kyrenia and one in Larnaca.

The Patriotic Front and AKEL pressured independent candidates to withdraw from the elections. As a result, the only female candidate, Kallistheni Maouni (Limassol), withdrew her candidacy.

In Paphos, the three candidates of the Patriotic Front and one candidate of AKEL were elected unopposed.[6]

In the fifteen Turkish seats, eight members of the Cyprus Turkish National Union, which was led by Vice-President Fazıl Küçük, ran unopposed in Nicosia, Kyrenia and Larnaca, whilst six independent candidates ran against the Cyprus Turkish National Union’s candidates in Famagusta, Limassol and Paphos.[7]

The Patriotic Front and AKEL also formed an electoral pact for the Communal Chambers, with a pre-agreed split of 20 and 3 seats respectively. They reserved three seats for the Latin, Armenian and Maronite Communities, which had opted to join the Greek Community upon independence.

For the 26 seats in the Greek Chamber 31 candidacies were submitted. In Larnaca the three candidates of the Patriotic Front and in Limassol the three candidates of the Patriotic front and one candidate of AKEL were elected unopposed. For the 30 seats of the Turkish Chamber 31 candidacies were submitted, 30 of which were members of the Cyprus Turkish National Union. The Cyprus Turkish National Union's 10, 6, 2, 4 and 4 candidates in Nicosia, Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca and Paphos respectively were declared elected unopposed.

The agreement reached by the Patriotic Front and AKEL also provided that the two parties would avoid the holding of elections, and independent candidates were pressured to withdraw. In Nicosia, independent candidate Christodoulos Pipis withdrew his candidacy and the six candidates of the Patriotic Front, one candidate of AKEL, Latin candidate Anthony Pietroni and Armenian candidate Berge Tilbian (who ran as a candidate for the Patriotic Front) were declared elected unopposed. In Paphos, on 3 August independent candidate Efthivoulos Ieropoulos withdrew his candidacy and the two candidates of the Patriotic Front and one candidate of AKEL were declared elected unopposed. In Famagusta, on 6 August (one day before the elections) independent candidate Polyvios Mavrommatis withdrew his candidacy and the four candidates of the Patriotic Front were declared elected unopposed.

Informal elections were held to decide the candidate for the Armenian community on 5 August. The winner of these elections would run as a candidate for the Patriotic Front in Nicosia and the other candidates would withdraw their candidacies. These were won by Berge Tilbian, and Vahram Levonian withdrew his candidacy.

In Kyrenia, independent candidate Savvas Christis refused to withdraw from the elections and ran against the three candidates of the Patriotic Front (including the Maronite candidate, Ioannis Mavrides).

In the Turkish Chamber, independent candidate Beukagi Kioproulou was pressured into withdrawing his candidacy in Limassol and the four candidates of the Cyprus Turkish National Union were declared elected unopposed. Therefore, no elections were held for the Turkish Chamber and the Cyprus Turkish National Union won all 30 seats. [8]

ResultsEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

Party Votes %[a] Seats
Greek Community
Patriotic Front 82,889 60.44 30
AKEL 51,719 37.71 5
Pancyprian Union of Fighters 6,608 4.82 0
Independents 7,229 5.27 0
Total 137,145 100 35
Valid votes 137,145 98.45
Invalid/blank votes 2,156 1.55
Total 139,301 100
Registered voters/turnout 215,155 64.74
Turkish Community
Cyprus Turkish National Union 11,738 68.80 15
Independents 3,460 20.28 0
Total 16,628 100 15
Valid votes 16,628 97.46
Invalid/blank votes 434 2.54
Total 17,062 100
Registered voters/turnout 23,005 74.17
Source: Eklektor, Ethnos
  1. ^ The votes shown are based on the average number of votes received by each party (across all their candidates) in each constituency. The percentages are calculated based on the total valid votes rather than the total of average votes, meaning they may total more (or less) than 100%.

By constituencyEdit

Greek CommunityEdit
Party Nicosia Kyrenia Famagusta Larnaca Limassol
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Patriotic Front 31,318 58.24 10 6,761 80.45 2 20,075 55.91 6 8,313 87.43 3 16,422 55.57 6
AKEL 22,463 42.08 2 15,396 42.88 1 13,860 46.90 1
Pancyprian Union of Fighters 3,571 6.69 0 1,826 21.73 0 1,211 12.74 0
Independents 727 1.36 0 3,478 9.69 0 197 2.07 0 2,827 9.57 0
Total 53,771 100 12 8,404 100 2 35,909 100 7 9,508 100 3 29,553 100 7
Valid votes 53,771 98.03 8,404 98.70 35,909 98.74 9,508 99.14 29,553 98.59
Invalid/blank votes 1,083 1.97 111 1.30 458 1.26 82 0.86 422 1.41
Total 54,854 100 8,515 100 36,367 100 9,590 100 29,975 100
Registered voters/turnout 83,253 65.89 14,366 59.27 48,361 75.20 23,207 41.32 45,968 65.21
Source: Eklektor
Turkish CommunityEdit
Party Famagusta Limassol Paphos
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Cyprus Turkish National Union 5,019 73.90 3 2,494 51.26 2 4,225 78.16 2
Independents 856 12.60 0 1,380 20.32 0 1,224 22.65 0
Total 6,792 100 3 4,865 100 2 5,405 100 2
Registered voters/turnout 9,154 74.20 6,561 74.15 7,290 74.14
Source: Ethnos

Communal ChambersEdit

Party Votes % Seats
Greek Chamber
Patriotic Front 5,061 88.29 20
AKEL 3
Armenians 1
Maronites 5,012 87.44 1
Latins 1
Independent 618 10.78 0
Total 5,732 100 26
Registered voters/turnout 14,366 39.9
Turkish Chamber
Cyprus Turkish National Union 30
Total 30
Source: Papademitris, Conley[permanent dead link]

By constituencyEdit

Party Votes % Seats
Kyrenia
Patriotic Front [a] 5,045 88.01 3
Independent 618 10.78 0
Total 5,732 100 3
Registered voters/turnout 14,366 39.9
Source: Papademitris
  1. ^ This included Maronite candidate Ioannis Mavrides, who received 5,012 votes.
Candidate Votes %
Armenians (Unofficial)
Berge Tilbian 1,364 60.49
Vahram Levonian 891 39.51
Invalid/blank votes 19 0.84
Total 2,274 100
Source: Papademitris

AftermathEdit

Following the elections, Glafcos Clerides was elected president of the House of Representatives and Orhan Muderisoglu was elected Vice-President, and a 12-member cabinet was formed.[9]

Member Position
Minister of Agriculture Fazil Plumber
Minister of Commerce and Industry Andreas Araouzos
Minister of Communications and Works Andreas Papadopoulos
Minister of Defence Osman Örek
Minister of Finance Reghinos Theocharous
Minister of Foreign Affairs Spyros Kyprianou
Minister of Health Niyazi Manyera
Minister of the Interior Polycarpos Georgadjis
Minister of Justice Stella Souliotou
Minister of Labour and Social Services Tassos Papadopoulos
Deputy Minister of Agriculture Andreas Azinas
Deputy Minister of Health Mehmet Nazim

By-elections were held shortly after the elections as four of the elected MPs, Fazil Plumber, Andreas Papadopoulos, Osman Örek and Niyazi Manyera were appointed ministers.

On 21 July 1961 Patriotic Front MP Lefkios Rodosthenous was removed from the House of Representatives. His seat remained vacant for the rest of his term.

In 1961 the Independent Turkish Group was created by eleven of the Turkish-Cypriot MPs. It was led by Orhan Muderisoglu.

In 1962 MP Petros Stylianou left the Patriotic Front and continued as an Independent for the remainder of his term.

In 1963 Turkish-Cypriot MP Shemshedin Halit Kazım died in a car accident. His seat was filled by his wife Ayla Halit Kazım. In December 1963 the Turkish Cypriots withdrew from participation in the government, leaving Parliament with only its Greek members.[10]

On 21 April 1966 Patriotic Front MPs Titos Fanos and Georgios Tompazos were appointed ministers of agriculture and works respectively, and resigned from the House of Representatives. Their seats remained vacant for the rest of their respective terms. Another MP, Costas Christodoulides, left the Patriotic Front, and Daphnis Panayides, elected in the first by-elections, resigned from the House of Representatives in that same year. Panayides' seat also remained vacant.[5]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p438 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ a b Yitzhak Oron Middle East Record Volume 1, 1960 The Moshe Dayan Centre, p225
  3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p434
  4. ^ a b c d Marshall William Conley (1967) Political Community and Social Conflict: Cyprus[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ a b "Βουλεφτηκές Εκλογές 1960". www.parliament.cy. Parliament of Cyprus. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  6. ^ Christophorou, Christophoros. "Βουλευτικές εκλογές, 31 Ιουλίου 1960". Eklektor (in Greek). Retrieved 11 April 2020.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p441
  8. ^ "7.8.1960: Με τη διεvέργεια εκλoγώv μόvo στηv επαρχία Κερύvειας και εκλέγovται τα μέλη της Πρώτης Ελληvικής Κoιvoτικής Συvέλευσης (Κoιvoτικής Βoυλής) εvώ στηv τoυρκική Κoιvότητα απoφεύχθηκαv oι εκλoγές για τηv αvάδειξη της Τoυρκικής Κoιvoτικής Συvέλευσης". www.papademetris.net. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  9. ^ Oron, p227
  10. ^ Historical review Parliament of Cyprus