1774 in Canada

Events from the year 1774 in Canada.

Years in Canada: 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777
Centuries: 17th century · 18th century · 19th century
Decades: 1740s 1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s 1800s
Years: 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777

IncumbentsEdit

GovernorsEdit

EventsEdit

BirthsEdit

DeathsEdit

Historical documentsEdit

Cover letter on British Quebeckers' petition for provincial assembly to make laws that do not risk their success or their children's Protestant education[1]

Cramahé warns Dartmouth of British Quebeckers with "American Ideas in regard to Taxation," saying their "Irregularity" is bad example to Canadians[2]

Quebec Act allows Catholicism and Canadian civil law and rights, establishes legislative council and expands province to include land north of Ohio River[3]

"Can a better legislature be given than that of a governor and council?" - Lord North says Quebec assembly can't be set up as it would have to be Catholic[4]

Former Quebec attorney general thinks temporary, Crown-appointed council with minority of Catholics better than Quebec bill's governor-appointed council[5]

"House of riot" - Quebec chief justice thinks Canadians see no advantage in provincial assembly that would be source of disturbance and obstruction[6]

Against Quebec Act, Chatham says it would lose "hearts of all the Americans" and British Quebeckers would deplore loss of jury trials and habeas corpus[7]

Charles Fox for assembly, which can safely include Canadians, as Catholics have nothing "repugnant in their views to the principles of political freedom"[8]

"The great maxim to be learned from the history of our colonization is—let men manage their own affairs" - MP opposes Quebec spread, other parts of bill[9]

Supporter says Quebec bill adopts "a government suitable to the genius of the people" who were "tractable[,] easily governed [and] happy" under French[10]

"I never yet knew it was found a grievance to any nation, to give them the English laws," which Canadians value, and should be worked into their civil law[11]

"A work of time and difficulty" - Quebec chief justice describes way to mix Canadian and English laws to satisfaction of both, rather than apply former only[12]

Londoners trading to Quebec petition to relieve Quebec merchants by retaining English law (including jury trials) and "grants and commissions" of past[13]

Regarding juries, Gov. Carleton says Canadians think it strange that British prefer trial verdicts of "tailors and shoemakers [and] gentlemen" over judges[14]

Edmund Burke: Quebec border (upper St. Lawrence, lower Great Lakes to Pennsylvania line, south to Ohio River) will divide liberty from French slavery[15]

Anonymous letter circulated among "French or Canadian Inhabitants" supports Quebec Act with answers to objections made by British seeking its repeal[16]

Advocate General says Britain can safely and rightly allow Catholic worship in Quebec, but must ban Catholic doctrine and papal or other foreign control[17]

In Commons, Carleton says Quebec trade (two thirds in Canadian hands) has greatly increased because of "very fast" growth of population and farming[18]

"The body of the people are not at all dissatisfied with the conquest" - Quebec chief justice thinks Canadians enjoy improved cultivation and land value[19]

Carleton says Canadians were told British law would make them happy, but felt mocked when denied civil rights and "places of profit, or trust, or honour"[20]

Gathered in congress, 12 American colonies see Quebec Act erecting "arbitrary government" on their frontiers and inclining its inhabitants to hostility[21]

"These are the rights you are entitled to" - Congress urges Canadians to join it and demand rights of Englishmen to check Quebec Act's arbitrariness[22]

Letter received from Philadelphia congress inviting Quebec merchants to support measures of "southern Colonies" is burned, and aid for Boston blocked[23]

Carleton on Canadians' "Uneasiness" at some British Quebeckers' efforts "to throw this Province into the same Disorders that reign" in other colonies[24]

Petitions for repeal of Quebec Act, with 187 signatures from Montreal and Quebec City, are sent to King, House of Lords and House of Commons[25]

In case situation worsens in Massachusetts, Gen. Gage asks Carleton if and how "Canadians and Indians" could be organized for military service there[26]

"Tuesday Morning last arrived from Boston the Sloop London Expedition, Capt. Chevalier, with 27 Acadiens, come to settle here" in Quebec[27]

Nova Scotia governor on meetings that "greatly tend to disturb the Peace; and to promote[...]public Disorders and the highest Contempt of Government"[28]

As exporting grain and pease "has been the Occasion of great Scarcity," bond and certificate of shipping within Nova Scotia are required through 1775[29]

Military and "wandering" persons without passes, all who even threaten to desert family, and anyone "seriously mad and dangerous" are to be arrested[30]

Scarborough, Yorkshire correspondent says town is full of emigrants, most of whom lack "good fortune[...]and expect to find it in the wilds of Nova Scotia"[31]

Yorkshiremen see Nova Scotia's good crop land, pasture and timber, but settlers too few and "ignorant, indolent, bad managers, and[...]poor" to prosper[32]

Touring farmers find Annapolis Valley's poor, rum-drinking New England settlers are very bad farmers ("strangers to cultivation") missing trade prospects[33]

Nova Scotia women "very industrious house-wives" who on Sundays dress in silk and calico with long ruffles, their hair dressed high, and carrying fans[34]

Halifax workhouse wants adults and children "to pick Oakum or Spin" for "good Victuals & Drink, and a good warm Stove Room to Work and Lodge in"[35]

Elizabeth Fleming, "having perfectly learn'd the art of a Midwife,[...]will readily at any moment wait on Rich or Poor"[36]

Grammar school opened in Halifax to teach Greek, Latin and French, and writing, cyphering and bookkeeping, with hours from 6 to 8, 10 to 12 and 3 to 5[37]

Evening school classes in writing, arithmatic and bookkeeping available to "young Gentlemen Apprentices and others" in Halifax[38]

Halifax woman teaches reading and writing, sewing and knitting, and flowering, marking and mitts knitting in her school, plus she makes hats and dresses[39]

Three-act comedy to run in Halifax that playwright says is entirely fictional, with characters "too outre to be personal on any Persons here or elsewhere"[40]

British frigate orders French frigate off "the fishing banks at Newfoundland," but it refuses and in battle loses its masts and has to strike its colours[41]

George Cartwright gives "a severe beating" to employee lost in woods near his Labrador home, and teaches him "unerring rules" about finding his way[42]

"Collector of North-American Plants" is in Labrador "to make Discoveries in that uncultivated and barren Part of the World, where no Botanist ever was"[43]

"An Act to discontinue[...]landing[...]or shipping of Goods, Wares, and Merchandise at[...]Boston; Whereas dangerous Commotions and Insurrections[....]"[44]

Brief note that 1,000 bushels of grain has arrived at Salem, Massachusetts from Quebec "for the poor at Boston"[45]

Brief obituary for Sir William Johnson, Superintendant of Indian Affairs[46]

Inscription on Wolfe's sarcophagus (removed?) in Westminster Abbey lauds his "surmounting by Ability, and Valour, all obstacles of Art and Nature"[47]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Memorial of the Freeholders, Merchants, Planters and others(...)now in the Province of Quebec" (January 10, 1774), Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. (See also their petition to King pgs. 347-8 (PDF frames 361-2)) Accessed 10 August 2022
  2. ^ "Cramahé to Dartmouth" (July 15, 1774), Documents Relating to the Constitutional History of Canada, 1759-1791 (1907), pg. 353 (PDF frame 367) (See also Canadians' petition to King, immediately following Cramahé letter) Accessed 15 August 2022
  3. ^ "An Act for making more effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec in North America" (October 7, 1774), Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School. (See also summary of act and its background and policy and short list of objections to act in Commons (pg. 49), plus illustration "This Sir is the meaning of the Quebec Act, 1774") Accessed 26 July 2022
  4. ^ May 26, 1774, Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pg. 10 (PDF frame 26) Accessed 27 July 2022
  5. ^ June 2, 1774, Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pg. 132 (PDF frame 148) (See also Maseres's earlier opinion on council (pg. 340) and "Case of the British Merchants Trading to Quebec" (pgs. 359-66)) Accessed 1 August 2022
  6. ^ June 3, 1774, Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pg. 160 (PDF frame 176) Accessed 1 August 2022
  7. ^ Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pgs. iii-v Accessed 14 July 2022 (See also warning (pgs. 228-9) that "all hope of peace in America will be destroyed" if Catholic army is raised in Canada, and various references from America to evils of Quebec Act)
  8. ^ June 8, 1774, Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pgs. 246-7 (PDF frames 262-3) Accessed 3 August 2022
  9. ^ June 6, 1774, Debates of the House of Commons(...)on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pgs. 187-8 (PDF frames 203-4) (Johnstone further (pg. 242) says bill favours governor and receiver-general, and surrounds British colonies with "line of despotism") Accessed 2 August 2022
  10. ^ "Thoughts on the Act For making more Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec" (1774). (See another supportive argument here) Accessed 27 July 2022
  11. ^ May 26, 1774, Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pgs. 39-40 (PDF frames 55-6) (See also assessment of Canadian opinion of English law (pgs. 125-6)) Accessed 28 July 2022
  12. ^ June 3, 1774, Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pgs. 156-7 (PDF frames 172-3) Accessed 1 August 2022
  13. ^ May 31, 1774, Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pg. 75 (PDF frame 90) (See also how counsel for merchants explains their stand (pgs. 96-9)) Accessed 28 July 2022
  14. ^ "June 2; Examination of General Carleton, Governor-General of Canada," Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pg. 102 (PDF frame 118) (Also, Canadians ridicule jury's unanimity requirement as "trial by strength of body and power to fast longest" (pg. 128), and upper class jurors are humiliated by having to work with lower class men, while latter find jury duty burdensome (pg. 151)) Accessed 28 July 2022
  15. ^ June 6, 1774, Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pgs. 194-7 (PDF frames 328-31) Accessed 2 August 2022
  16. ^ Letter to Canadians (in French with English translation; delivered December 26, 1774), An Account of the Proceedings of the British, and other Protestant Inhabitants of the Province of Quebeck[...]to obtain An House of Assembly[....] (1775), pgs. 264-75. Accessed 4 August 2022 (See also Gov. Carleton reports Canadians' satisfaction with Act, but letter from Montreal says "Canadians in general" oppose it and gentry and priests support it (Page 1 of 3))
  17. ^ James Marriott, "Fourth article" Plan of a Code of Laws for the Province of Quebec (1774), pgs. 119-70. (See also The Justice and Policy of the late Act of Pariament, for(...)Quebec, Asserted and Proved) Accessed 4 August 2022
  18. ^ "June 2; Examination of General Carleton, Governor-General of Canada," Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pgs. 104-5 (PDF frames 120-1) Accessed 28 July 2022
  19. ^ "Examination of William Hey, Esq., Chief Justice of Quebec" (June 3, 1774), Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pg. 154 (PDF frame 170) Accessed 1 August 2022
  20. ^ "June 2; Examination of General Carleton, Governor-General of Canada," Debates of the House of Commons[...]on the Bill for Making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec (1839), pg. 113 (PDF frame 129) Accessed 28 July 2022
  21. ^ "The Articles of Association" Journals of the Continental Congress (October 20, 1774), Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School. (See also expression of "great danger" Quebec poses, and rumour in London that regiment of Royal Canadians might be raised (2nd pg.), and "sort of Enthusiasm" prevailing in Boston ("our all is at stake")). Accessed 26 July 2022
  22. ^ (John Dickinson?), "A Letter to the Inhabitants of the Province of Quebec; Extract from the Minutes of the Congress" (October 26, 1774). (See also London common council petitions opposing Quebec bill in Parliament) Accessed 27 July 2022
  23. ^ "Halifax, October 25," The Nova-Scotia Gazette: and The Weekly Chronicle, (October 25, 1774) Page 4 of 4. Accessed 10 August 2022
  24. ^ "Carleton to Dartmouth" (November 11, 1774), Documents Relating to the Constitutional History of Canada; 1759-1791; Part II (2nd edition; 1918), pgs. 586-8. (See also John Adams' report that Massachusetts and Boston are considering "opening a Communication with Several Parts of" Quebec) Accessed 16 August 2022
  25. ^ "Petitions for the Repeal of the Quebec Act" (November 12, 1774), Documents Relating to the Constitutional History of Canada; 1759-1791; Part II (2nd edition; 1918), pgs. 589-94. Accessed 16 August 2022
  26. ^ "Extract of a Letter from General Gage to General Carleton" (September 4, 1774), Documents Relating to the Constitutional History of Canada; 1759-1791; Part II (2nd edition; 1918), pgs. 583-4. Accessed 16 August 2022
  27. ^ "Quebec, June 30," The Quebec Gazette, Nomb. 494 (June 30, 1774), 3rd pg. Accessed 9 August 2022
  28. ^ "Halifax, September 20; By his Excellency," The Nova-Scotia Gazette: and The Weekly Chronicle, Number 209 (September 20, 1774), Page 5 of 5. Accessed 10 August 2022
  29. ^ "An Act to prevent for a limitted Time the Exportation of Wheat, Rye, Barley, Flour, Meal and Pease from this Province" (1774), 14 George III - Chapter 4, British North American Legislative Database, 1758-1867. Accessed 26 July 2022
  30. ^ "An Act for punishing Rogues, Vagabonds, and other idle and disorderly Persons" (1774), 14 George III - Chapter 5, British North American Legislative Database, 1758-1867. Accessed 26 July 2022
  31. ^ "April 8," The Quebec Gazette, Nomb. 494 (June 30, 1774), 2nd pg. Accessed 9 August 2022
  32. ^ John Robinson and Thomas Rispin, "They have good land" A Journey through Nova Scotia (1774), pgs. 32-3. Accessed 3 August 2022
  33. ^ John Robinson and Thomas Rispin, "Annapolis Royal" A Journey through Nova Scotia (1774), pgs. 14-15. Accessed 3 August 2022
  34. ^ John Robinson and Thomas Rispin, "The women(....)" A Journey through Nova Scotia (1774), pgs. 25, 35-6. Accessed 3 August 2022
  35. ^ "Employment for the Poor; Halifax Work-house," The Nova-Scotia Gazette: and The Weekly Chronicle, Number 177 (February 8, 1774), Page 1 of 4. Accessed 5 August 2022
  36. ^ "To the Public," The Nova-Scotia Gazette: and The Weekly Chronicle, (November 1, 1774) Page 1 of 4. Accessed 11 August 2022
  37. ^ "Notice is hereby given," The Nova-Scotia Gazette: and The Weekly Chronicle, Number 194 (June 7, 1774), Page 2 of 4. Accessed 10 August 2022
  38. ^ "Mr M'Gowan," The Nova-Scotia Gazette: and The Weekly Chronicle, (November 1, 1774) Page 1 of 4. Accessed 11 August 2022
  39. ^ "Mrs. Blackburn," The Nova-Scotia Gazette: and The Weekly Chronicle, Number 203 (August 9, 1774), Page 4 of 4. Accessed 10 August 2022
  40. ^ "Halifax, February 1[...]Persons of the Drama, &c.," The Nova-Scotia Gazette: and The Weekly Chronicle, Number 176 (February 1, 1774), Page 3 of 4. (See also synopsis of play on front page) Accessed 5 August 2022
  41. ^ "August 6," The Quebec Gazette, Nomb. 515 (November 24, 1774), 2nd pg. Accessed 9 August 2022
  42. ^ C.W. Townsend (ed.), "Tuesday, October 18, 1774," Captain Cartwright and His Labrador Journal (1911), pg. 155 Accessed 5 August 2022
  43. ^ "Edinburgh, March 3," The Quebec Gazette, Nomb. 492 (June 16, 1774), 2nd pg. Accessed 9 August 2022
  44. ^ "Anno Regni Georgii III," The Quebec Gazette, Nomb. 491 (June 9, 1774), 1st pg. Accessed 9 August 2022
  45. ^ "New-York, October 6," The Quebec Gazette, Nomb. 512 (November 3, 1774), 3rd pg. Accessed 9 August 2022
  46. ^ "New-York, July 25," The Quebec Gazette, Nomb. 501 (August 18, 1774), 2nd pg. Accessed 9 August 2022
  47. ^ "October 5," The Quebec Gazette, Nomb. 472 (January 27, 1774), 2nd pg. Accessed 8 August 2022