- Thomas Fairchild, a nurseryman at Hoxton in the East End of London, becomes the first person to produce a successful scientific plant hybrid, Dianthus Caryophyllus barbatus, known as "Fairchild's Mule".
- James Petiver publishes Papilionum Brittaniae Icones, the first book devoted exclusively to British butterflies, giving English names to a number of species.
- June 5 – Emanuel Mendes da Costa, English botanist (died 1791)
- June 28 – Matthew Stewart, Scottish mathematician (died 1785)
- September 11 – Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, Swedish astronomer (died 1783)
- November 16 – Jean le Rond d'Alembert, French mathematician (died 1783)
- Pierre Le Roy, French clockmaker (died 1785)
- Wilhelm Friedrich von Gleichen, German microscopist (died 1783)
- The Gentle Author (2011-07-02). "Thomas Fairchild, Gardener of Hoxton". Spitalfields Life. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Salmon, Michael A. (2000). The Aurelian Legacy: British butterflies and their collectors. Colchester: Basil Harley. pp. 103–105. ISBN 0-946589-40-2.
- "Maria Sibylla Merian - Life, Facts, & Works". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 4 April 2018.