This article contains information about the literary events and publications of 1606.
- January? – Sir Thomas Craig becomes church procurator.
- February – John Day's satirical play The Isle of Gulls causes a scandal which sends several of the young actors from the Children of the Chapel to prison for short periods.
- Spring – Ben Jonson's satirical play Volpone is first performed, by the King's Men at the Globe Theatre in London.
- May 27 – The English Parliament passes An Act to Restrain Abuses of Players, tightening censorship controls on public theatre performances, notably in relation to profane oaths.
- August 7 – Possible first performance of Shakespeare's Macbeth, with Richard Burbage in the title role, amongst a series of plays presented by the King's Men before Kings James I of England and Christian IV of Denmark (his brother-in-law) at Hampton Court Palace in England.
- November 14 – Marc Lescarbot's dramatic poem Théâtre de Neptune is performed at the Habitation at Port-Royal, Nova Scotia, the first theatrical performance in North America.
- December 26 (St. Stephen's Day) – Shakespeare's King Lear is performed at Court before King James I of England. The title role is played by Richard Burbage and the Fool by Robert Armin.
- Thomas Dekker
- The Double PP
- News From Hell
- Salvator Fabris – Lo Schermo, overo Scienza D'Arme
- Philemon Holland – The Historie of Twelve Caesars, a translation of Suetonius's De vita Caesarum
- Anonymous (published)
- The Returne from Pernassus, or The Scourge of Simony
- Wily Beguiled
- Anonymous (probably Thomas Middleton) – The Revenger's Tragedy
- George Chapman
- John Day – The Isle of Gulls
- Lope de Vega
- Ben Jonson
- John Marston
- Thomas Middleton (attributed) – The Puritan, or, The Widow of Watling-Street (probable date)
- William Shakespeare
- Edward Sharpham – The Fleir
- February 28 – William Davenant, English poet and dramatist (died 1668)
- March 3 – Edmund Waller, English poet (died 1687)
- May 12 – Joachim von Sandrart, German art historian (died 1688)
- June 6 – Pierre Corneille, French dramatist (died 1684)
- Unknown dates
- May 13 (burial) – Arthur Golding, English translator (born c. 1536)
- May 17 – Niccolò Orlandini, Italian Jesuit writer (born 1554)
- May 30 – Guru Arjan, Sikh Guru and compiler of scriptures (in custody, born 1563)
- September 28 – Nicolaus Taurellus, German philosopher and theologian (born 1547)
- October 5 – Philippe Desportes, French poet (born 1546)
- November 13 – Girolamo Mercuriale, Italian philologist and medical writer (born 1530)
- November 20 (burial) – John Lyly, English dramatist, poet and novelist (born c. 1553)
- November 22 – Sir Henry Billingsley, English translator (birth year unknown)
- Unknown date – Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer – Dutch cartographer (born 1533/1534)
- Sutherland, John; Fender, Stephen (2011). "7 August". Love, Sex, Death & Words: surprising tales from a year in literature. London: Icon. pp. 297–8. ISBN 978-184831-247-0.
- Suzanne Gossett (April 21, 2011). Thomas Middleton in Context. Cambridge University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-521-19054-1.
- Akihiro Yamada (April 28, 2017). Experiencing Drama in the English Renaissance: Readers and Audiences. Taylor & Francis. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-351-76446-9.
- Scholars date completion of these plays as between 1603 and 1606. Boyce, Charles (1990). Encyclopaedia of Shakespeare. New York: Roundtable Press.