Victoria (minor planet designation: 12 Victoria) is a large main-belt asteroid, orbiting the Sun with a period of 3.56 years and an eccentricity of 0.221. It is a stony (S-type) asteroid, about 112–124 km across with an albedo of 0.18 and a rotation period of 8.66 hours. Victoria has been observed to occult a star three times since its discovery. Radar and speckle interferometry observations show that the shape of Victoria is elongated, and it is suspected to be a binary asteroid, with a moon of irregular shape.[6]

12 Victoria Victoria symbol (fixed width).svg
12 Victoria VLT (2021), deconvolved.pdf
Discovered byJohn Russell Hind
Discovery date13 September 1850
(12) Victoria
Named after
Victoria (Latin: Uictōria)
Main belt
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch 13 January 2016 (JD 2457400.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc60430 days (165.45 yr)
Aphelion2.84931 AU (426.251 Gm)
Perihelion1.81758 AU (271.906 Gm)
2.33344 AU (349.078 Gm)
3.56 yr (1302.0 d)
19.50 km/s
0° 16m 35.429s / day
Earth MOID0.821096 AU (122.8342 Gm)
Jupiter MOID2.42194 AU (362.317 Gm)
Physical characteristics
Dimensionsc/a = 0.69±0.03[3]
Mean diameter
116±2 km[3]
112.8 ± 3.1 km (IRAS)[2]
124.09 ± 8.31 km[4]
Mass(2.7±1.3)×1018 kg[3]
(2.45±0.46)×1018 kg[4]
Mean density
3.4±1.7 g/cm3[3]
2.45±0.67 g/cm3[4]
Equatorial surface gravity
0.0315 m/s²
Equatorial escape velocity
0.0596 km/s
8.6599 h (0.36083 d)[2]
0.167 (calculated)[3]
0.1765 ± 0.010[2]
Temperature~178 K
S-type asteroid[2]
8.68[5] to 12.82
0.188" to 0.04"

This minor planet was discovered by English astronomer J. R. Hind on September 13, 1850. Victoria is officially named after the Roman goddess of victory, but the name also honours Queen Victoria. The goddess Victoria (Nike for the Greeks) was the daughter of Styx by the Titan Pallas. The coincidence with the name of the then-reigning queen caused quite a controversy at the time, and B. A. Gould, editor of the prestigious Astronomical Journal, adopted the alternate name Clio (now used by 84 Klio), proposed by the discoverer. However, W. C. Bond, of the Harvard College Observatory, then the highest authority on astronomy in America, held that the mythological condition was fulfilled and the name therefore acceptable, and his opinion eventually prevailed.[7]

Model of 12 Victoria made by light-curve inversion

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Noah Webster (1884) A Practical Dictionary of the English Language
  2. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 12 Victoria" (2008-11-06 last obs). Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e P. Vernazza et al. (2021) VLT/SPHERE imaging survey of the largest main-belt asteroids: Final results and synthesis. Astronomy & Astrophysics 54, A56
  4. ^ a b c Carry, B. (December 2012). "Density of asteroids". Planetary and Space Science. 73: 98–118. arXiv:1203.4336. Bibcode:2012P&SS...73...98C. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.009.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link) See Table 1.
  5. ^ "AstDys (12) Victoria Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  6. ^ Other reports of asteroid/TNO companions
  7. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of minor planet names. Vol. 1 (5th ed.). Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer-Verlag. p. 16. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_13. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.

External linksEdit