X-Group culture

The X-Group Culture was an ancient civilization that existed from ca. 300 CE to ca. 600 CE. It was centered in Nubia stretching from the Dodekaschoinos in the north to Delgo in the south. George A. Reisner, who first discovered their civilization, used the term X-Group Culture for lack of a more exact historical definition.[2]

A royal crown from the post-Meroitic and pre-Christian period of Nubia. It was found in Ballana by W.B. Emery in tomb 118.[1]

This anonymous type of terminology has been replaced by the term Ballana culture due to the increase of knowledge and new findings in Qustul and Ballana as proposed by Bruce Trigger.[3]


  1. ^ W.B. Emery, Nubian Treasure: An Account of the Discoveries at Ballana and Qustul, London 1948. pl. 13A
  2. ^ G. Mokhtar, General History of Africa II. Ancient Civilizations of Africa, 1981, ISBN 0435948059,p.326.
  3. ^ Bruce Trigger, History and Settlement in Lower Nubia. New Haven: Yale University Publications in Anthropology, 1965.