Wurlitzer electric piano

The Wurlitzer electronic piano is an electric piano manufactured and marketed by Wurlitzer from the mid-1950s to the early 1980s. The sound is generated by striking a metal reed with a hammer, which induces an electric current in a pickup; although conceptually similar to the Rhodes piano, the sound is different.

A Wurlitzer 200A, the most commercially successful model

Wurlitzer manufactured several different models of electric pianos, including console models with built-in frames, and standalone stage models with chrome legs. The latter became popular with several R&B and rock musicians in the 1960s and 70s, particularly Supertramp.

SoundEdit

The official name of the instrument is the Wurlitzer Electronic Piano.[1] However, the sound is generated electromechanically by striking a metal reed with a felt hammer, using conventional piano action.[2] This induces an electrical current in an electrostatic pickup system using a DC voltage of 170v.[1][3]

Most Wurlitzer pianos are 64-note instruments whose keyboard range is from A an octave above the lowest note of a standard 88-note piano to the C an octave below its top note.[4] The instrument is fitted with a mechanical sustain pedal.[1] It has two internal speakers, but can also be connected to an external amplifier.[5]

Compared with the (Fender) Rhodes electric piano, the sound from a Wurlitzer is sharper and closer to a sawtooth wave, compared to the Rhodes which is closer to a sine wave. This gives the Wurlitzer a sharper and punchier tone.[6] When played gently the sound can be quite sweet and vibraphone-like, sounding very similar to the Rhodes; while becoming more aggressive with harder playing, producing a characteristic slightly overdriven tone usually described as a "bark".[3][7]

Over time, particularly with aggressive playing, the reeds on a Wurlitzer will suffer metal fatigue and break. Additionally, any debris between the reed and the pickup can cause a short circuit and produce a burst of distortion.[7]

HistoryEdit

 
Wurlitzer model 112 electronic piano

Inventor Benjamin Miessner designed an amplified conventional upright piano in the early 1930s by taking an acoustic baby grand and installing an electrostatic pickup system in it. He first demonstrated the instrument in 1932. Four years later, he demonstrated the piano at the National Association of Music Merchants (NAMM) show in Chicago. By 1940, Miessner had licensed a patent for his piano design that was used in several electric piano models across the US.[8]

In the early 1950s, Meissner invented a new type of electric piano, substituting strings with struck quarter-inch steel reeds. This allowed a much smaller instrument to be manufactured, as it did not need the space to support tension-loaded strings as on an acoustic piano. The reed assembly was designed carefully in order to produce the best set of harmonics when a hammer struck a reed. The lack of acoustic noise meant it could be played quietly using headphones.[8]

The improved model was co-invented by Paul Renard and Howard Holman for Wurlitzer in Chicago.[9][10] The first model, the 100 was announced in August 1954 at a trade show in Chicago, with production beginning later that year. The 110 and 111 models were introduced shortly afterwards, with the 112 appearing the following year. Early models were built in a small factory in Corinth, Mississippi.[11]

In May 1956, Wurlitzer opened a new 100,000-square-foot (9,300 m2) factory in Corinth dedicated to making electric pianos.[12] Various models continued to be produced here until 1964, when it expanded to an additional plant in DeKalb, Illinois.[13] Production later expanded to Logan, Utah.[14] In the late 1970s, costs were cut in order to increase profitability with the emerging digital synthesizer market. The last 200A was built in 1984.[15][16] In total, around 120,000 models were produced.[17]

The Wurlitzer was popular with bar bands and amateur musicians, as it allowed pianists to use the same instrument at each gig, instead of having to use whatever piano happened to be available at the venue. Its relative portability meant it was also a suitable instrument for practice or songwriting.[18]

Wurlitzer often used celebrity endorsements in trade magazines, such as Count Basie, Marian McPartland and Frederick Dvonch. Steve Allen featured in several Wurlitzer advertisements and recorded a series of promotional albums for the company.[17]

ModelsEdit

Most Wurlitzer electric pianos are portable models with removable legs and the sustain pedal attached via a Bowden cable; console, "grand" and "spinet" models were also produced with a permanently attached pedal. The early models' sustain pedals attached through the right side of the instrument, with the pedal eventually being connected directly under the unit in later 1956, beginning with the model 112A.[19]

Portable modelsEdit

 
A model 200A next to a guitar amplifier

The earliest versions were the "100" series; these had a case made from painted fibreboard and were fitted with a single loudspeaker mounted in the rear of the case.[1] Apart from the 1950s models (110, 111, 112, 112A, 120), the portable Wurlitzer pianos featured a tremolo effect (officially "vibrato", although this was a misnomer) with fixed rate but adjustable depth.[20] Models produced until the early 1960s used vacuum tube circuitry exclusively; the 140 was the first model with a transistor amplifier, introduced in 1962. The model 145 had a tube amplifier and was produced concurrently with the 140. The 145B, the final portable tube model, was phased out in late 1965, while the 140B continued.[13] Around 8,000 140Bs were manufactured.[21] There was a solid state classroom variant called 146B, later renamed the 146.[22]

In 1968, the plastic-lidded 200 was introduced, replacing the earlier wooden models.[17] It was a much lighter instrument (56 pounds (25 kg) without the legs or pedal)[8] with a 30 watt amplifier and two loudspeakers facing the player. This helped cut costs as the case could be moulded instead of having to be sawn and joined together. The 200 featured a different keyboard action to earlier models, and a reworked tremolo effect. The instrument's top was hinged at the back, which made it easy to service and repair.[21] It became the most popular Wurlitzer model, with around 88,000 produced.[17] The 200 was available in black, dark "Forest Green", red or beige.[21]

This model was updated as the 200A in 1974 and continued in production into 1984.[23] It featured an improved shield over the reed and pickups to reduce mains hum, which had been a problem with the 200.[24] The last version to be introduced was the 200B in 1978. It was externally identical to the 200A but was designed to be powered by a pair of high-voltage batteries and had no internal amplifier or speakers, in order to reduce hum from the instrument.[25]

Console modelsEdit

model 214
model 203

One important role for the Wurlitzer piano was as a student instrument in schools and collages, and non-portable console versions were made for this purpose.[26] The teacher had a headphone and microphone to be able to listen into each student individually and talk to them without others hearing them. All students listened to each of their instruments through headphones. Up to 48 individual student instruments could be connected together. According to former Wurlitzer employee Bill Fuller, 75% of all universities used Wurlitzer piano labs in the late 1960s or early 1970s, and some facilities were still in operation as late as 2000.[15]

Most student models resemble a beige or light green Model 200 mounted on a matching pedestal containing a loudspeaker, headphone niche and sustain pedal. There is no tremolo (although earlier models simply have the facility disabled). Some of these models were given the designation 206/206A.[22] Rarer than the student models are the teacher consoles (207/207VA/205V, etc.), featuring multiple monitor/mute switches and, in some cases the facility to add a large illuminated display panel ("Key Note Visualizer") operated via the keyboard.[27] Standalone classroom consoles were the 214/215 series, and home/stage consoles were the 203, 203W and 210. An unusual, angular version was the 300, only available in Europe around early 1973.[28]

model 106 classroom piano.
Note: Two knobs on the left are not the originals.
model 207 teacher's console for music labs.[29]

106PEdit

A rare version, and the only known model not to have 64 keys is the 106P (P for "Pupil"), a 44-note classroom model with a plastic case, no controls, one loudspeaker and no sustain pedal.[30] The 106P was available as a set of eight on a folding frame, forming a portable keyboard lab. They were attached by a cable to a full size teacher piano with controls to feature each pupil piano.[31] This model appears to date from the early 1970s and was available in orange or beige. Page McConnell, of the rock band Phish, has played a customised 106P with an additional vibration circuit.[32]

Other modelsEdit

 
Student Butterfly piano (1930s) with a pair of small wings. Later model 270 Butterfly Baby Grand (1976) was an electric piano version with a pedal.

Spinet versionsEdit

Since production began, small numbers of wood-cased spinet-style instruments were made for domestic use.[33] Though internally identical to the stage versions, they had an upright-piano style soft pedal (actually an electronic attenuator) as well as the sustain pedal.[citation needed] The model 700 was the same amplifier and action as the portable 120, and featured a 12-inch (300 mm) internal speaker that emphasised bass frequencies better.[13] The model 700 was produced circa 1958–1962. The longer-keyed model 720 was the spinet version of the 145 tube model; the model 720A, in two consecutive design variations, was a spinet variation of the 145A and 145B, respectively; and the 1966-7 720B was a version of the solid state 140B. A classroom console called the 726B (later renamed the 726) was a console variant of the 146(B) solid state classroom portable. The model 720 and its variants were produced circa 1962–1967.[citation needed]

Butterfly Baby GrandEdit

The 200A uniquely had a domestic sister model 270 called the "Butterfly Baby Grand",[34] a semicircular, walnut finish wooden-cased piano with twin quadrant-shaped lids angled above horizontally mounted 8" loudspeakers. This was among the last Wurlitzers designed (released 1976), and is difficult to find. It is also the heaviest Wurlitzer ever produced.[citation needed]

MaintenanceEdit

The most common maintenance and service task on a Wurlitzer is replacing broken reeds. In order to sound the correct pitch, each reed has a blob of solder on the end, which must be filed off to produce the right weight. Reeds have elongated screw holes, which allows fine tuning by moving it backwards and forwards in the assembly before fastening.[35] It is still possible to buy spare reeds, or take them from another instrument that has broken.[36]

A further issue is debris between a reed and the pickup causing distortion or pops. The easiest way to fix this is to repeatedly press each key in order to dislodge the dirt. Failing that, a more comprehensive solution is to open the instrument up and spray compressed air at the affected area.[22]

ClonesEdit

The Wurlitzer is emulated in several modern digital keyboards, though its electromechanical sound production is difficult to emulate in a synthesized instrument. The Korg SV1 has been critically praised for its accurate emulation of a Wurlitzer.[37] The Nord Stage includes several different Wurlitzer patches.[38]

Notable usersEdit

Though jazz pianist Sun Ra used the instrument for his 1960 album Angels and Demons at Play, the first documented commercial recording using the Wurlitzer was two years earlier, Steve Allen's "Electrified Favorites" of 1958, prominently featuring the new keyboard (Coral 57185).[39] It was later used by Ray Charles, as he preferred to take a Wurlitzer with him instead of using whatever piano was at a venue. Joe Zawinul borrowed Charles' Wurlitzer for a gig backing Dinah Washington and liked the instrument enough to buy his own model.[18][40]

The instrument was used extensively by Supertramp in the 1970s, in songs such as "The Logical Song", "Goodbye Stranger" and "Dreamer".[40][41][18] Queen's John Deacon played a Wurlitzer on their hit "You're My Best Friend", and Pink Floyd's Richard Wright played one on "Money".[18]

Norah Jones has regularly used a Wurlitzer on stage. Her preferred model is a 206 (a student version of the 200) repainted in a deep-red finish.[42]

ReferencesEdit

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d Palkovic 2015, p. 156.
  2. ^ Shepherd 2003, p. 32.
  3. ^ a b Collins 2014, p. 308.
  4. ^ Sussman 2012, pp. 27–28.
  5. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, pp. 97,99.
  6. ^ "Rhodes vs Wurlitzer : Comparing classic electric pianos". reverb.com. March 6, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  7. ^ a b Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 97.
  8. ^ a b c Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 107.
  9. ^ Chronicle, Augusta (September 2010). "Paul Renard Obituary". Legacy. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  10. ^ Grant, US (April 1959). "Electric Piano Amplifier". Google. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  11. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 108.
  12. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 109.
  13. ^ a b c Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 114.
  14. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 121.
  15. ^ a b Vail 2000, pp. 276–277.
  16. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019.
  17. ^ a b c d Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 99.
  18. ^ a b c d Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 98.
  19. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, pp. 101,108.
  20. ^ Vail 2000, p. 276.
  21. ^ a b c Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 115.
  22. ^ a b c Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 119.
  23. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, pp. 115,121.
  24. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 116.
  25. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, pp. 117–118.
  26. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 104.
  27. ^ "A Rare Breed Indeed: The Wurlitzer Student Model Classroom". The Workshop Blog. The Chicago Electric Piano Co. June 26, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
  28. ^ "Wurlitzer Electric Piano models: a list". docwurly.com. November 16, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  29. ^ Electronic Piano Series 200 and 200A Service Manual (PDF), DeKalb, Illinois: The Wurlitzer Company
  30. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, pp. 100–101.
  31. ^ "Custom Shop: The Wurlitzer 106P". Chicago Electric Piano. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  32. ^ "44 key Wurlitzer 106p". Page McConnell. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  33. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 113.
  34. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 106.
  35. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 118.
  36. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 120.
  37. ^ "Korg SV1". Sound on Sound. October 2009. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  38. ^ "Wurlitzer". Nord Keyboards. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  39. ^ "Sheridan, Phil. "Record Review." Philadelphia Inquirer, February 17, 1958.
  40. ^ a b Burgess 2014, p. 76.
  41. ^ Shepherd 2003, p. 302.
  42. ^ Lenhoff & Robertson 2019, p. 101.

Sources