A (musical note)
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Its enharmonic equivalents are B♭♭ (Heses) which is a diatonic semitone above A♭ and G♯♯ (Gisis) which is a diatonic semitone below A♯.
"A" is generally used as a standard for tuning. When the orchestra tunes, the oboe plays an "A" and the rest of the instruments tune to match that pitch. Every string instrument in the orchestra has an A string, from which each player can tune the rest of their instrument.
The International Standards Organization (ISO) has standardized the pitch at A-440. However, tuning has varied over time, geographical region, or instrument maker. In 17th-century Europe, tunings ranged from about A-374 to A-403, approximately two to three semitones below A-440. Historical examples exist of instruments, tuning forks, or standards ranging from A-309 to A-455.3, a difference of almost six semitones. Although the official standard today is A-440, some orchestral groups and chamber groups prefer to tune a little higher, at A-442 or even A-444. Baroque pitch is usually cited as A-415, which is a semitone lower than modern pitch.
A0 is the lowest note on the standard piano. The octaves follow A1, A2, etc. A7 is a few pitches lower than C8, the highest note on the standard piano. The note "A" is not considered to be a certain milestone or mark to hit with voice as, for example, Tenor C is, but it can be extremely demanding in certain octaves.
Designation by octaveEdit
|Scientific designation||Helmholtz designation||Octave name||Frequency (Hz)||Sound sample|
|A−1||A͵͵͵ or ͵͵͵A or AAAA||Subsubcontra||13.75|
|A0||A͵͵ or ͵͵A or AAA||Subcontra||27.50|
|A1||A͵ or ͵A or AA||Contra||55|
Common scales beginning on AEdit
- A major: A B C♯ D E F♯ G♯ A
- A natural minor: A B C D E F G A
- A harmonic minor: A B C D E F G♯ A
- A melodic minor ascending: A B C D E F♯ G♯ A
- A melodic minor descending: A G F E D C B A
- A Ionian: A B C♯ D E F♯ G♯ A
- A Dorian: A B C D E F♯ G A
- A Phrygian: A B♭ C D E F G A
- A Lydian: A B C♯ D♯ E F♯ G♯ A
- A Mixolydian: A B C♯ D E F♯ G A
- A Aeolian: A B C D E F G A
- A Locrian: A B♭ C D E♭ F G A
- "ISO 16:1975 Acoustics - Standard Tuning Frequency". International Standards Organization. Retrieved 10 December 2019.