Wittenberg Concord

Wittenberg Concord, is a religious concordat signed by Reformed and Lutheran theologians and churchmen on 29 May 1536[1][2] as an attempted resolution of their differences with respect to the Real Presence of Christ's body and blood in the Eucharist.[2] It is considered a foundational document for Lutheranism[3] but was later rejected by the Reformed.

The Reformed signers included Martin Bucer,[4] Wolfgang Fabricius Capito, Matthäus Alber, Martin Frecht, Jakob Otter, and Wolfgang Musculus. The Lutherans signers included Martin Luther,[4] Philipp Melanchthon,[4] Johannes Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Caspar Cruciger, Justus Menius, Friedrich Myconius, Urban Rhegius, George Spalatin. This document defined the doctrine of the Real Presence of Christ's body and blood in the Eucharist as the Sacramental Union and maintained the real eating of the body and blood of Christ by "unworthy communicants" (manducatio indignorum).


  1. ^ Raitt, Jill (June 1983), "The Emperor and the Exiles: The Clash of Religion and Politics in the Late Sixteenth Century", Church History, Cambridge University Press, 52 (2): 145–156, doi:10.2307/3166948, ISSN 0009-6407, JSTOR 3166948
  2. ^ a b McNeill, John (July 1928), "Calvin's Efforts toward the Consolidation of Protestantism", The Journal of Religion, The University of Chicago Press, 8 (3): 411–433, doi:10.1086/480756, ISSN 0022-4189, JSTOR 1196033
  3. ^ Russell, William (September 1995), "The Theological "Magna Charta" of Confessional Lutheranism", Church History, Cambridge University Press, 64 (3): 389–398, doi:10.2307/3168946, ISSN 0009-6407, JSTOR 3168946
  4. ^ a b c McNeill, John (December 1963), "Calvin as an Ecumenical Churchman", Church History, Cambridge University Press, 32 (4): 379–391, doi:10.2307/3163288, ISSN 0009-6407, JSTOR 3163288