Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2 is the fifth version of the Windows Server operating system produced by Microsoft and released as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009, and became generally available on October 22, 2009, shortly after the completion of Windows 7. It is the successor to Windows Server 2008, which is derived from the Windows Vista codebase, released the previous year.
|A version of the Windows NT operating system|
|OS family||Microsoft Windows|
|Released to |
|July 22, 2009|
|October 22, 2009|
|Latest release||Service Pack 1 (6.1.7601.24499) / February 9, 2011|
|Update method||Windows Update, Windows Server Update Services, SCCM|
|Kernel type||Hybrid (Windows NT kernel)|
|Windows shell (Graphical)|
|License||Commercial software (Retail, volume licensing, Microsoft Software Assurance)|
|Preceded by||Windows Server 2008 (2008)|
|Succeeded by||Windows Server 2012 (2012)|
|Mainstream support ended on January 13, 2015.|
Extended support ended January 14, 2020.
Windows Server 2008 R2 is eligible for the paid for ESU (Extended Security Updates) program. This program allows volume license customers to purchase, in yearly installments, security updates for the operating system through at most January 10, 2023 only for Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter volume licensed editions.
Installing Service Pack 1 is required for users to receive updates and support after April 9, 2013.
|Articles in the series|
Enhancements in Windows Server 2008 R2 include new functionality for Active Directory, new virtualization and management features, version 7.5 of the Internet Information Services web server and support for up to 256 logical processors. It is built on the same kernel used with the client-oriented Windows 7, and is the first server operating system released by Microsoft to exclusively support 64-bit processors.
Microsoft is no longer providing security updates and technical support for Windows Server 2008 R2 RTM since April 9, 2013, and Service Pack 1 must be installed to continue receiving support and updates on any given Windows operating system. Seven editions of Windows Server 2008 R2 were released: Foundation, Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter, Web, HPC Server and Itanium, as well as Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. A home server variant called Windows Home Server 2011 was also released.
Official mainstream support for Windows Server 2008 and 2008 R2 ended on January 13, 2015, and extended support ended on January 14, 2020. A support program is currently available for enterprises, providing security updates for Windows 7 for up to four years since the official end of life.
On January 7, 2009, a beta release of Windows Server 2008 R2 was made available to subscribers of Microsoft's TechNet and MSDN programs, as well as those participating in the Microsoft Connect program for Windows 7. Two days later, the beta was released to the public via the Microsoft Download Center.
On April 30, 2009, the release candidate was made available to subscribers of TechNet and MSDN. On May 5, 2009, the release candidate was made available to the general public via the Microsoft download center.
According to Windows Server Blog, the following are the dates of the year 2009 when Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 has been made available to various distribution channels:
- OEMs received Windows Server 2008 R2 in English and all language packs on July 29. The remaining languages were available around August 11.
- Independent software vendor (ISV) and independent hardware vendor (IHV) partners have been able to download Windows Server 2008 R2 from MSDN starting on August 14.
- IT professionals with TechNet subscriptions were able to download Windows Server 2008 R2 and obtain product keys for English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish variants beginning August 14 and all remaining languages beginning August 21.
- Developers with MSDN subscriptions have been able to download and obtain product keys for Windows Server 2008 R2 in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish starting August 14 and all remaining languages starting August 21.
- Microsoft Partner Program (MPP) gold/certified members were able to download Windows Server 2008 R2 through the MPP portal on August 19.
- Volume licensing customers with an existing Software Assurance (SA) contracts were able to download Windows Server 2008 R2 on August 19 via the Volume License Service Center.
- Volume licensing customers without an SA were able to purchase Windows Server 2008 R2 through volume licensing by September 1.
Microsoft has announced that Server 2008 R2 will be the last version of Windows supporting the Itanium architecture, with its extended support ending earlier than for the regular non-Itanium edition or "until July 10, 2018."
A reviewer guide published by the company describes several areas of improvement in R2. These include new virtualization capabilities (Live Migration, Cluster Shared Volumes using Failover Clustering and Hyper-V), reduced power consumption, a new set of management tools and new Active Directory capabilities such as a "recycle bin" for deleted objects. IIS 7.5 has been added to this release which also includes updated FTP server services. Security enhancements include encrypted clientless authenticated VPN services through DirectAccess for clients using Windows 7, and the addition of DNSSEC support for DNS Server Service. Even though DNSSEC as such is supported, only one signature algorithm is available: #5/RSA/SHA-1. Since many zones use a different algorithm – including the root zone – this means that in reality Windows still can't serve as a recursive resolver.
The DHCP server supports a large number of enhancements such as MAC address-based control filtering, converting active leases into reservations or link layer based filters, DHCppP Name protection for non-Windows machines to prevent name squatting, better performance through aggressive lease database caching, DHCP activity logging, auto-population of certain network interface fields, a wizard for split-scope configuration, DHCP Server role migration using WSMT, support for DHCPv6 Option 15 (User Class) and Option 32 (Information Refresh Time). The DHCP server runs in the context of the Network Service account which has fewer privileges to reduce potential damage if compromised.
Windows Server 2008 R2 supports up to 64 physical processors or up to 256 logical processors per system. (Only the Datacenter and Itanium editions can take advantage of the capability of 64 physical processors. Enterprise, the next-highest edition after those two, can only use 8.) When deployed in a file server role, new File Classification Infrastructure services allow files to be stored on designated servers in the enterprise based on business naming conventions, relevance to business processes and overall corporate policies.
Performance improvement was a major area of focus for this release; Microsoft has stated that work was done to decrease boot time, improve the efficiency of I/O operations while using less processing power, and generally improve the speed of storage devices, especially iSCSI.
Active Directory has several new features when raising the forest and domain functional levels to Windows Server 2008 R2: Two added features are Authentication Mechanism Assurance and Automatic SPN Management. When raising the forest functional level, the Active Directory recycle bin feature is available and can be enabled using the Active Directory Module for PowerShell.
Support for the RTM version of Windows Server 2008 R2 ended on April 9, 2013, and users will not be able to receive further security updates for the operating system, due to new policies requiring Service Pack 1 to continue to be supported with security updates, lasting until the end of support lifecycle for that Windows operating system. The host without the latest Windows Server 2008 R2 service pack installed is vulnerable to viruses and multiple security attacks.
On January 13, 2015, Windows Server 2008 R2 exited mainstream support and entered the extended support phase; Microsoft continued to provide security updates every month for Windows Server 2008 R2, however, free technical support, warranty claims, and design changes were no longer being offered. Extended support ended on January 14, 2020, about less than eleven years after the release of Windows Server 2008 R2. On July 12, 2018, Microsoft announced a paid "Extended Security Updates" service that will offer additional updates for Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter for up to three years after the end of extended support.
In August 2019, researchers reported that "all modern versions of Microsoft Windows" may be at risk for "critical" system compromise due to design flaws of hardware device drivers from multiple providers. In the same month, computer experts reported that the BlueKeep security vulnerability, CVE-2019-0708, that potentially affects older unpatched Microsoft Windows versions via the program's Remote Desktop Protocol, allowing for the possibility of remote code execution, may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue, affecting newer Windows versions (i.e., Windows 7 and all recent versions) as well. In addition, experts reported a Microsoft security vulnerability, CVE-2019-1162, based on legacy code involving Microsoft CTF and ctfmon (ctfmon.exe), that affects all Windows versions from the older Windows XP version to the most recent Windows 10 versions; a patch to correct the flaw is currently available.
On February 9, 2011, Microsoft officially released Service Pack 1 (SP1) for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 to OEM partners. Apart from bug fixes, it introduces two new major functions, RemoteFX and Dynamic Memory. RemoteFX enables the use of graphics hardware support for 3D graphics in a Hyper-V based VM. Dynamic Memory makes it possible for a VM to only allocate as much physical RAM as is needed temporarily for its execution. On February 16, SP1 became available for MSDN and TechNet subscribers as well as volume licensing customers. As of February 22, SP1 is generally available for download via the Microsoft Download Center and available on Windows Update.
System requirements for Windows Server 2008 R2 are as follows:
- 1.4 GHz x86-64 or Itanium 2 processor
- Minimum: 512 MB RAM (may limit performance and some features)
- Recommended: 2 GB RAM
- Maximum: 8 GB RAM (Foundation), 32 GB RAM (Standard), or 2 TB RAM (Enterprise, Datacenter and Itanium)
- Super VGA (800×600) or higher
- Disk Space Requirements
- Minimum (editions higher than Foundation): 32 GB or more
- Minimum (Foundation edition) 10 GB or more.
- Computers with more than 16 GB of RAM require more disk space for paging and dump files.
- DVD drive, keyboard and mouse, Internet access (required for updates and online activation)
|Maximum RAM on x86-64||8 GB||32 GB||256 GB||2 TB|
|Maximum physical CPUs||1||4||8||64|
|Failover cluster nodes (Nodes)||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||16||8|
|Cross-file replication (DFS-R)||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Fault tolerant memory sync||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Memory modules: Hot addition||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Memory modules: Hot replacement||No||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|CPUs: Hot addition||No||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|CPUs: Hot replacement||No||No||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|Remote Desktop Services connections||50||250||No||No||Unlimited||Unlimited||No|
|Virtual image use rights||Forbidden||Host + 1 VM||1 VM||Host + 1 VM||Host + 4 VMs||Unlimited||Unlimited|
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Why the change? The natural evolution of the x86 64-bit (“x64”) architecture has led to the creation of processors and servers which deliver the scalability and reliability needed for today’s “mission-critical” workloads.
- "Microsoft ending support for Itanium". 4 April 2010.
SQL Server 2008 R2 and Visual Studio 2010 are also the last versions to support Itanium.
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