Wilcannia is a small town located within the Central Darling Shire in north western New South Wales, Australia. Located on the Darling River, the town was the third largest inland port in the country during the river boat era of the mid-19th century. At the 2016 census, Wilcannia had a population of 745.
New South Wales
|Population||745 (2016 census)|
|Elevation||75.0 m (246 ft)|
|LGA(s)||Central Darling Shire|
Predominantly populated by Aboriginal Australians, Wilcannia has received national and international attention for the low life expectancy of its residents. Residents have reported that water quality in Wilcannia is unsafe, leading locals to rely on boxed water transported from Broken Hill, nearly 200 kilometres (120 mi) away.
The area lies in the traditional lands of the Barkindji people, who call the river "Baaka". The name Wilcannia is said to be derived from an indigenous term for either "gap in the bank where floodwaters escape" or "wild dog". Neither meaning has been linguistically verified.
In late January 1859, Captain Francis Cadell, in charge of the river boat Albury, entered the Darling River at its junction with the Murray and, after eight days travel, reached the Mount Murchison pastoral station, held by Hugh and Bushby Jamieson. Flour and other stores were delivered to the station and one hundred bales of wool were loaded for the return journey. Cadell's pioneering journey was the beginning of river boat transport on the Darling River (when river conditions allowed). The site of the future township developed as the location for the unloading and loading of river-borne cargo. The settlement was initially known as Mount Murchison, taking its name from the nearby pastoral run. As economic activity increased, the location attracted business and trades providing services and amenities to the surrounding stations.
In June 1866, the New South Wales Department of Lands formally declared "portions of Crown Lands" to be set apart as a site for the town of Wilcannia. Despite the official proclamation, the older name for the settlement persisted. In March 1867, a correspondent from the town wrote that: "the township of Mount Murchison is fast springing into importance, owing to the splendid country surrounding it, and which is fast being taken up for pastoral pursuits. We have public houses, stores, butchers' shops, boarding houses, a cordial manufactory in full operation, and a colonial ale brewery in course of erection".
An account of Wilcannia in December 1874 described the buildings in the town as "on the whole being of a very poor description, principally small weatherboard places, many of them looking rather dilapidated". Three stores were operating in the township, as well as three public houses: the Mount Murchison Hotel, Wilcannia Hotel and Britannia Hotel. There were signs of increased commercial activity in the township: two banks, the Australian Joint Stock Bank and the Commercial Bank, had recently opened branches, and four stock and station agents had started businesses "within the last three months". However, there was no telegraph office, "the want of which is sorely felt by the business people of the town, and in fact the whole district". Wilcannia had a public school, but no churches. There were two doctors, "but as it is a very rare thing to find them otherwise than drunk, they are worse than useless".
In December 1880, a second local newspaper, the Western Grazier, began publication in Wilcannia. By early 1881 patients were being treated in the newly built local hospital. At the census of 1881 the population of Wilcannia was recorded as 1,424 (976 males and 448 females). Wilcannia was incorporated as a municipality in February 1883, with Edmond O'Donnell elected its first mayor. The first major project of the municipality was the construction of water supply system for the township. A July 1884 report stated that Wilcannia had a population "of about 1200", and was described as a township "of well-laid-out streets and good buildings", situated "in the centre of a large sheep country". The Post and Telegraph Office was reported to be "a handsome building" and several of the stores ("notably Frew, Wright, and Co., J. Palmer and Co., and Cramsie, Bowden, and Co.") were described as "not only extensive but of considerable architectural beauty". It was explained that a quarry of freestone "of excellent quality", within two miles (3 km) of the township "has been largely used for building purposes". The only local industry of note was a brewery.
Wilcannia was the location of a Customs station on the Darling River. It was described as a "large and important centre of trade, where in 1881 £13,100 was collected as Customs revenue". The river trade during the 1880s was so extensive at Wilcannia that its Customs House was "probably the largest inland Customs Station in New South Wales".
When river conditions permitted travel by steamers Wilcannia was a major port on the Darling River. A visitor to the town described the river scene in 1890:
- There are several wharves (so-called) which were merely graduated slopes cut out of the river bank, and in the wool season the river, in their vicinity, is thronged with steamers and barges, waiting for or unloading the season's clip, for the bulk of it goes away either to Bourke, for Sydney, or to Wentworth, or Goolwa. A barge, laden with from 1,200 to 2,000 bales of wool is a pretty sight; and a still more interesting spectacle is a string of 30 or 40 camels, each carrying two bales, proceeding into town from some far back station.
At the time of the 1891 census the municipality of Wilcannia had a non-Aboriginal population of 1,287 (775 males and 512 females).
Vehicles and stock were crossed over the Darling River at Wilcannia by a punt operated by Charles Smith until the mid-1890s. In 1895 a bridge was constructed at Wilcannia and opened to traffic in January 1896. The bridge consisted of five spans, a total length of 310 feet (94.5 metres) with a centre lift span "to permit of steamers passing when the river is high".
In January 1917 it was reported that the Wilcannia Hospital was "without a doctor". The hospital was "full of patients, some diptheria cases among them, and the Matron is having a very hard and anxious time".
In December 1939 Wilcannia was described as "merely a shopping centre for the wide district, although people travelling into Queensland and lonely sections of New South Wales often rest there".
Wilcannia is located where the Barrier Highway crosses the Darling River, 965 kilometres (600 mi) from Sydney. The environment is borderline semi-arid to desert with an annual rainfall of 255 millimetres (10.0 in). Wilcannia is located within the Darling Riverine Plains Bioregion (IBRA classification, Department of Environment), consisting of landscapes adapted to flooding. Common species include River Red Gum, Yellow Box, Oldman Saltbush and Lignum.
The surrounding area is very sparsely settled by pastoralists who have large land holdings, used primarily to run sheep. These holdings fall in the Western Division and the majority are held as 99-year leases.
Wilcannia has a semi-arid climate with hot summers and mild to cool winters. Mean maximum daily temperature in summer is 34 °C and in winter is 19 °C. The highest temperature recorded in Wilcannia was 50.0 °C (122.0 °F) on 11 January 1939. This was during the severe heatwave of January 1939.
|Climate data for Wilcannia (Reid Street)|
|Record high °C (°F)||50.0
|Average high °C (°F)||35.4
|Average low °C (°F)||19.8
|Record low °C (°F)||9.2
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||25.9
|Average precipitation days||2.9||2.9||2.7||2.7||4.1||4.6||4.4||4.2||3.4||4.0||3.4||3.2||42.5|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
On 9 November 1950, a severe thunderstorm with damaging winds and large hail the size of cricket balls struck the town. Two people were injured, dozens of homes lost their roofs and nearly every house in town was damaged due to the large hail.
From the 2016 Census, Wilcannia had a population of 549 with 407 (74.4%) people being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent, mostly from the Barkindji nation. Wilcannia has 223 private dwellings. The town was listed as one of the most socially disadvantaged areas of New South Wales according to the 2015 Dropping Off The Edge report.
The town's social issues were highlighted in the BBC3 documentary Reggie Yates: Hidden Australia "Episode 1: Black in the Outback", first broadcast online on 16 January 2017. In March 2017 the BBC, in response to complaints about the biased and misleading view portrayed, investigated the claims and suspended the production company pending the outcome of the review. In June 2017 the suspension was confirmed for 6 months, covering all new commissions and development. "It was a serious breach of the BBC's Editorial Guidelines and the high standards of accuracy and fairness we expect of programme makers," the BBC Trust stated. The BBC and Sundog both issued apologies.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Wilcannia (State Suburbs)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- "Profile of the electoral division of Parkes (NSW)". Australian Electoral Commission. 25 February 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "Wilcannia". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
- "Dailytelegraph.com.au | Subscribe to The Daily Telegraph for exclusive stories". Retrieved 4 July 2021.
- "Town with life expectancy at 37 for its men | The Stringer". thestringer.com.au. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
- "Rugby league initiative takes anxiety out of men's health checks". www.abc.net.au. 23 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
- Oboohov, Paul (5 November 2020). "Indigenous water defender demands court hearing in Wilcannia". Green Left. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
- Feik, Nick (9 March 2019). "Wilcannia: The town with no water". The Saturday Paper. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
- Volkofsky, Aimee (12 May 2020). "Indigenous community sets up camp on Darling River to avoid coronavirus risk in overcrowded homes". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
- "Wilcannia – Culture and History". The Sydney Morning Herald. November 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- 'Navigation of the Darling', Sydney Morning Herald, 12 March 1859, page 7.
- New South Wales Government Gazette, 29 June 1866 (Issue No. 127), page 1512.
- "The Barrier Ranges". The Leader. 30 March 1867. p. 6. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
- Australian Bureau Of Statistics; Australian Data Archive; Smith, Len; Rowse, Tim; Hungerford, Stuart (2021). "Historical and Colonial Census Data Archive (HCCDA)". Australian National University. doi:10.26193/MP6WRS. Retrieved 25 February 2021. Cite journal requires
- Wagga Wagga Express and Murrumbidgee District Advertiser, 31 January 1874, page 2.
- "Wilcannia". The Empire. 28 December 1874. p. 4. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
- 'The Western Grazier', Newcastle Morning Herald and Miner’s Advocate, 22 December 1880, page 2.
- 'Wilcannia', Sydney Morning Herald, 19 February 1881, page 6.
- New South Wales Government Gazette, 25 May 1883 (Issue No. 222), page 2917.
- 'Wilcannia', Australian Town and Country Journal, 27 August 1887, page 28.
- 'Wilcannia', Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser, 19 July 1884, page 116.
- 'New South Wales Shipping', Riverine Herald (Echuca), 22 January 1883, page 3.
- 'Elaborate Plans for "Back to Wilcannia" Week', Barrier Miner (Broken Hill), 23 October 1939, page 5.
- Philip Cox & Wesley Stacey (1973), Historic towns of Australia, Melbourne, Lansdowne, p.100. ISBN 0701801840
- 'Wilcannia in 1880' by Watson A. Steel, Sydney Mail, 13 July 1938, page 2.
- 'The New River Darling Bridge', Evening Journal (Adelaide), 10 January 1896, page 3.
- 'Wilcannia', Western Herald (Bourke), 17 January 1917, page 3.
- 'Romantic Story of River Town: Churches Have Played Part', Barrier Miner (Broken Hill), 9 December 1939, page 36.
- "Year Book Australia 2009–10" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Statistics. p. 97. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "Wilcannia (Reid St)". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. March 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "Hurricane And Hail Storm Lashes Far-western Town". The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. 10 November 1950. p. 1. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "The Barkindji people are losing their 'mother', the drying Darling River".
- Taylor, Josie; Branley, Alison. "Dropping Off The Edge: Select suburbs stuck in cycle of disadvantage with little being done to help, report shows". ABC News. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "BBC Three - Reggie Yates: Hidden Australia, Black in the Outback". BBC. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- Wainwright, Sofie (8 June 2017). "BBC suspends relationship with producers of Wilcannia documentary". ABC News. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- Davidson, Helen (8 March 2017). "BBC apologises for misleading documentary on 'drunken' Aboriginal community". The Guardian.
- "#16: Positively Wilcannia". ABC Radio National. 5 July 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- "The Most Beautiful Lady..." (PDF). New Dawn. 1 (10): 2–3. January 1971.
Media related to Wilcannia, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons
- Visit NSW Wilcannia
- Gooch, Declan (10 November 2019). "Wilcannia River Radio's role in its community recognised in CBAA national radio awards". ABC News (Broken Hill). Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- on YouTube – a Desert Pea Media community project with a group of young Indigenous people enrolled at Wilcannia High School, and a group of community leaders from Wilcannia and Broken Hill.