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Bathymetric map of Horizon Guyot

Horizon Guyot is an underwater volcanic mountain with a flat top in the Mid-Pacific Mountains west of Hawaii and northeast of the Line Islands. An elongated ridge over 300 kilometres (190 mi) long and 4.3 kilometres (2.7 mi) high, it stretches in a northeast–southwest direction, rising to a depth of 1,443 metres (4,734 ft). It was probably formed by a hotspot, but evidence is conflicting. Its volcanic activity occurred between 100.5 and 82 million years ago during the Cretaceous Period. Around 89 million years ago, carbonate deposition from lagoonal and reefal environments set in and formed limestone. Volcanic islands developed on Horizon Guyot as well and were colonised by plants. Pelagic ooze has accumulated on the seamount, forming a thick layer that has been further modified by ocean currents, landslides, and various organisms living on it. Ferromanganese crusts have been deposited on exposed rocks. (Full article...)