Vṛddhi

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Vṛddhi is a technical term in morphophonology given to the strongest grade of vowel in the Proto-Indo-European phenomenon of ablaut more generally referred to as apophony.

OriginsEdit

The term is derived from Sanskrit vṛddhi, IPA: [ˈʋr̩d̪d̪ʱɪ], lit. 'growth',[a] from Proto-Indo-European *werdʰ- 'to grow'[1]

The concept itself, along with the rest of the vowel gradation processes, has its origin in an early stage of the Proto-Indo-European language.[2]

Vṛddhi in SanskritEdit

The general phenomenon of vowel gradation, including vṛdhhi formation has been extensively studied and documented as part of Sanskrit's vigorous grammatical tradition, most importantly in the Aṣṭhadhyayī of the grammarian Pāṇini.[3]

For example:[4]

  • bhṛ-tá- "carried" (zero grade)
  • bhár-aṇa- "burden" (first grade, full grade, or guṇa)
  • bhār-yá- "to be carried" (second grade, lengethened grade, or vṛddhi)

The full pattern of vowel gradation can be observed as follows:[5]

Vowel gradation
Zero grade ← 1st grade → 2nd grade
Open a ā
Palatal i/ī
y
i/ī
e[b]
ay
ya
ai[c]
āy
Labial u/ū
v
u/ū
o[d]
av
va
au[e]
āv
Retroflex
r
ar
ar
ra
ār
ār
Dental al āl

Vṛddhi in Indo-EuropeanEdit

In modern Indo-European linguistics it is used in Pāṇini's sense, but not restricted to Sanskrit but applicable to the Indo-European languages in general as well as to the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language from which this feature was inherited:

  • *bʰr̥-[f] (zero grade of the reconstructed verb meaning "to carry")[6]
  • *er- (full grade)
  • *ēr- (vṛddhi, lengthened grade)

Vṛddhi-derivationsEdit

A vṛddhi-derivation or vṛddhi-derivative is a word that is derived by such lengthening, a type of formation very common in Sanskrit, but also attested in other languages. Such derivatives signify "of, belonging to, descended from". An example:[7]

  • PIE *swéḱuro- "father-in-law" (Vedic Sanskrit śváśura-) → *swēḱuró- "relating to one's father-in-law" (Vedic śvāśura- "relating to one's father-in-law", Old High German swāgur "brother-in-law")

Derivatives that are formed by inserting a full grade (as opposed to a lengthened grade) vowel into the "wrong" position of a zero grade are also called vṛddhi-derivations:[7]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ in Sanskrit, a -tí-nomen actionis formed from the verbal root vṛdh-/vardh- 'to grow'
  2. ^ originally 'ai'
  3. ^ originally 'āi'
  4. ^ originally 'au'
  5. ^ originally 'āu'
  6. ^ The asterisk * indicates that a form is not directly attested, but has been reconstructed on the basis of other linguistic material.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ *werdʰ- 'to grow' entry at Indo-European etymological database of The Tower of Babel project
  2. ^ Clackson, §3.3.
  3. ^ Burrow, §2.1.
  4. ^ Meier-Brügger, Fritz & Mayrhofer (2003, L 413)
  5. ^ Bucknell, tb. 5.
  6. ^ Rix (2001:76f)
  7. ^ a b Fortson (2004:116f)

BibliographyEdit

  • Fortson, Benjamin W., IV (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-0316-7.
  • Meier-Brügger, Michael; Fritz, Matthias; Mayrhofer, Manfred (2003). Indo-European Linguistics. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-017433-2.
  • Rix, H (2001). Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben (2 ed.). ISBN 3-89500-219-4.
  • Clackson, James (2007). Indo-European Linguistics. Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-65313-8.
  • Burrow, T. The Sanskrit Language (2001 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1767-2.
  • Bucknell, Roderick S, Sanskrit Manual (2000) ISBN 81-208-1188-7