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Contents

ReferencesEdit

misc. historyEdit

  • A History of World Societies (2007, 7th edition) editors: McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey ISBN 0-618-61093-6
  • Bidwell, Shelford (1973) Royal horse artillery (Famous regiments) ISBN 0-85052-138-6
  • Blockmans, Wim & Hoppenbrouwers, Peter (2007) Introduction to Medieval Europe 300-1550 translation by Isola van den Hoven ISBN 0-415-34699-1
  • (in Swedish) Kungliga artilleriet: Det ridande artilleriet (1987) editor: Jonas Hedberg (summary in English) ISBN 91-85266-39-6

military historyEdit

  • Howard, Frank, "Early Ship Guns. Part I: Built-up Breech-loaders", Mariner's Mirror 72 (1986), pp. 439-53.
  • Howard, Frank, "Early Ship Guns. Part II: Swivels", Mariner's Mirror 73 (1987), pp. 49-55.
  • Rodger, Nicholas A. M., "Image and Reality in Eigteenth-Century Naval Tactics." Mariner's Mirror 89, No. 3 (2003), pp. 281-96.

Naval warfareEdit

English NavyEdit
  • Loades , David, The Tudor Navy: An administrative, political and military history. Scolar Press, Aldershot. 1992. ISBN 0-85967-922-5
  • Knighton, C. S. & Loades, David M., The Anthony Roll of Henry VIII's Navy: Pepys Library 2991 and British Library Additional MS 22047 with related documents. Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot. 2000. ISBN 0-7546-0094-7
  • Parker, Geoffrey, "The Dreadnought Revolution of Tudor England", Mariner's Mirror 82, No. 3 (1996), pp. 269-300.
  • Rodger, Nicholas A. M., "The Development of Broadside Gunnery, 1450-1650." Mariner's Mirror 82, No. 3 (1996), pp. 301-24.
  • Rodger, Nicholas A. M., The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain 660–1649. W.W. Norton & Company, New York. 1997. ISBN 0-393-04579-X
Swedish navyEdit
  • Berg, Lars-Otto, "Development of the Swedish archipelago fleet in the 18th century, construction[,] technology and weaponry" in The war of King Gustavus III and naval battles of Ruotsinsalmi: VIII International Baltic Seminar 5-7 July 1990. Provincial Museum of Kymenlaakso, Kotka. 1993. ISBN 951-96183-5-X
  • (in Swedish) Berg, Lars Otto, "Skärgårdsflottans fartyg: Typer och utveckling under 1700- och 1800-talet" in Hans Norman (editor), Skärgårdsflottan: Uppbyggnnad, militär användning och förankring i det svenska samhället 1700-1824. Historiska media, Lund. 2000. ISBN 91-88930-50-5, pp. 50-75
  • Ericsson Wolke, Lars, "En helt ny flotta – sjökrigen under 1600-talets sista årtionden" i Ericson Wolke & Hårdstedt, Svenska sjöslag. Medströms förlag, Stockholm. 2009. ISBN 978-91-7329-030-2
  • (in Swedish) Glete, Jan, "Kriget till sjöss 1788-1790" in Gunnar Artéus (editor) Gustav III:s ryska krig. Probus, Stockholm. 1992. ISBN 91-87184-09-5, pp. 110-174
  • Glete, Jan, Navies and Nations: Warships, Navies and State Building in Europe and America, 1500-1680, Volume One. Almqvist & Wiksell International, Stockholm. 1993. ISBN .
  • (in Swedish) Gyllengranat, Carl August, Sveriges sjökrigs-historia i sammandrag Karlskrona, Ameen. 1840.
  • Harris, Daniel G, Fredrik Henrik af Chapman: The First Naval Architect and his Work. (revised edition) Literatim, Stockholm. 2001. ISBN 91-973075-2-1.
  • (in Swedish) Ericsson [Wolke], Hårdstedt, Iko, Sjöblom & Åselius, Svenska slagfält. Wahlström & Widstrand, Stockholm. 2003. ISBN 91-46-20225-0
    • (in Swedish) Åselius, Gunnar, "Köge bukt 1676: Danmarks största sjöseger"
    • (in Swedish) Sjöblom, Olof, "Slaget vid Öland 1676: Kronan går under"
  • (in Swedish) Ericson Wolke & Hårdstedt, Svenska sjöslag. Medströms förlag, Stockholm. 2009. ISBN 978-91-7329-030-2
  • (in Swedish) Unger, Gunnar, Illustrerad Svensk Sjökrigshistoria omfattande tiden intill 1680. Bonnier, Stockholm. 1909.
  • (in Swedish) Zettersten, Axel, Svenska flottans historia åren 1635-1680 Norrtälje. 1903.
  • (in Swedish) Nikula, Oscar, Svenska skärgårdsflottan 1756-1791. [doctoral dissertation] Helsingfors. 1933.
Scanian WarEdit
  • Bjerg, Hans Christian (redaktör), Slaget i Køge bugt 1. juli 1677: forudsætninger, forløb og følger. Søe-lieutenant-selskabet, København/Köpenhamn/Copenhagen. 1977.
  • Osvalds, Erik (editor), Spelet om Skåne. Malmö museer, Malmö. 1993. ISBN 91-87336-22-7
  • Rystad, Göran (redaktör), Kampen om Skåne Historiska media, Lund. 2005. ISBN 91-85057-05-3
Danish navyEdit
  • Barfod, Jørgen H, Niels Juel: Liv og gerning i den danske søetat. Universitetsforlaget, Aarhus. 1977. ISBN 87-504-0386-9
  • Barfod, Jørgen H, Niels Juel: A Danish Admiral of the 17th Century. Marinehistorisk selskab, Copenhagen. 1977. ISBN ?
  • Barfod, Jørgen H, Niels Juels flåde. Gyldendal, Copenhagen. 1997 ISBN 87-00-30226-0
  • Bergersen, Fra Henrik Bielke til Iver Huitfeldt: utsyn over den dansk-norske fellesflåtes historie i perioden 1630 til 1710. (volume 2) Trondheim, 1953-56.
  • Hans Christian Bjerg, "Niels Juel: The Good Old Knight" in Jack Sweetwater The Great Admirals: Command at Sea 1587-1945. U.S. Naval Institute, Annapolis. 1997. ISBN 0-87021-229-X pp. 112-29[1]

shipsEdit

VasaEdit

  • Cederlund, Carl Olof (2006) Vasa I, The Archaeology of a Swedish Warship of 1628, series editor: Fred Hocker ISBN 91-974659-0-9
  • (in Swedish) Modellen: Vasamodeller från när och fjärran (1997), ISBN 91-85268-69-0 (Vasa Museum exhibit catalog)
  • (in Swedish) Sandström, Anders (1982) Sjöstrid på Wasas tid: Wasastudier, nr 9 ISBN 91-85268-15-1
  • Soop, Hans (1986) The Power and the Glory : The Sculptures of The Warship Wasa ISBN 91-7402-168-0

Mary RoseEdit

  • Barker, Richard, "Shipshape for Discoveries, and Return", Mariner's Mirror 78 (1992). pp. ?-?
  • de Brossard , M., "The French and English versions of the loss of the Mary Rose in 1545", Mariner's Mirror 70 (1984), p. 387.
  • Childs, David, The Warship Mary Rose: The Life and Times of King Henry VIII's Flagship Chatham Publishing, London. 2007. ISBN 978-1-86176-267-2
  • Gardiner, Julie (editor), Before the Mast: life and death aboard the Mary Rose The Archaeology of the Mary Rose, Volume 4. The Mary Rose Trust, Portsmouth. 2005. ISBN 0-9544029-4-4
  • Jones, Mark (editor), For Future Generations: Conservation of a Tudor Maritime Collection The Archaeology of the Mary Rose, Volume 5. The Mary Rose Trust, Portsmouth. 2003. ISBN 0-9544-029-5-2
  • Marsden, Peter, Sealed by Time: The Loss and Recovery of the Mary Rose. The Archaeology of the Mary Rose, Volume 1. The Mary Rose Trust, Portsmouth. 2003. ISBN 0-9544029-0-1
  • Marsden, Peter (editor), Your Noblest Shippe: Anatomy of a Tudor Warship. The Archaeology of the Mary Rose, Volume 2. The Mary Rose Trust, Portsmouth. 2009. ISBN 978-0-9544029-2-1
  • Rule, Margaret, The Mary Rose: The Excavation and Raising of Henry VIII's Flagship. (2nd edition) Conway Maritime Press, London. 1983. ISBN 0-85177-289-7
  • Stirland, Ann J., Raising the Dead: The Skeleton Crew of Henry VIII's Great Ship, the Mary Rose. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. 2000. ISBN 0-471-98485-X
  • Watt, James, "The Surgeons of the Mary Rose: the practice of surgery in Tudor England", Mariner's Mirror 69 (1983), pp. 3–19.

KronanEdit

  • During [Düring], Ebba, "Specific Skeletal Injuries Observed on the Human Skeletal Remains from the Swedish Seventeenth Century Man-of-War, Kronan" i International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 7 (1997), s. 591-594.
  • Einarsson, Lars, Kronan. Kalmar läns museum, Kalmar. 2001. ISBN 91-85926-48-5
  • Einarsson, Lars, Likplundring i Hulterstad år 1676 i Kalmar län 2005, s. 52-58.
  • Einarsson, Lars, "Ännu en silverskatt påträffad i vraket av regalskeppet Kronan" i Myntstudier 2005:3, s. 14-16.
  • Einarsson, Lars, Kronanprojektet. Rapport över 2007 års marinarkeologiska undersökningar vid vrakplatsen efter regalskeppet Kronan. Kalmar läns museum, Kalmar. 2008. ISBN
  • Gainsford, Sara & Johansson, Kenneth, "2005 års skatt från regalskeppet Kronan" i Myntstudier 2008:3, s. 3-17.
  • Glete, Jan, Hur stor var Kronan? Något om stora örlogsskepp i Europa under 1600-talets senare hälft i Forum Navale Sjöhistoriska samfundet, Stockholm. 1999, s. 17-25
  • Golabiewski Lannby, Monica, The goldtreasure from the royal ship Kronan at the Kalmar County Museum. Kalmus, Kalmar. ISBN 91-85926-09-4
  • Johansson, Björn Axel (redaktör), Regalskeppet Kronan. Trevi, Stockholm. 1985. ISBN 91-7160-740-4
  • Lundgren, Kurt, Stora Cronan: Byggandet Slaget Plundringen av Öland En genomgång av historiens källmaterial. Lenstad Bok & Bild, Kristianstad. 1997. ISBN 91-973261-5-1.
  • Lundgren, Kurt, Sjöslaget vid Öland. Vittnesmål – dokument 1676-1677. Lingstad Bok & Bild, Kalmar. 2001. ISBN 91-631-1292-2
  • Pousette, Mary, "Klädd ombord" i Skärgård och örlog: nedslag i Stockholms skärgårds tidiga historia Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Konferenser 71. Stockholm. 2009. ISBN 978-91-7402-388-6
  • Lars Einarsson, "Present maritime archaeology in Sweden: the case of Kronan" in Schokkenbroek, J.C.A. (editor), Plying between Mars and Mercury: political, economic and cultural links between the Netherlands and Sweden during the Golden age: papers for the Kronan symposium, Amsterdam, 19 november 1993., pp. 41-47
  • Franzén, Anders, HMS Kronan : the search for a great 17th century Swedish warship Stockholm : Royal inst. of technology library [Tekn. högsk:s bibl.], 1981

galleysEdit

  • Anderson, Roger Charles, Oared Fighting Ships: From classical times to the coming of steam. London. 1962.
  • Bamford, Paul W., Fighting ships and prisons : the Mediterranean Galleys of France in the Age of Louis XIV. Cambridge University Press, London. 1974. ISBN 0-8166-0655-2
  • Gardiner, Robert & Morrison, John S. (editors), The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-Classical Times. Conway Maritime, London, 1995. ISBN 0-85177-554-3
    • Alertz, Ulrich, "The Naval Architecture and Oar Systems of Medieval and Later Galleys", pp. 142-62
    • Bondioli, Mauro, Burlet, René & Zysberg, André, "Oar Mechanics and Oar Power in Medieval and Later Galleys", pp. 142-63
    • Casson, Lionel, "Merchant Galleys", pp. 117-26
    • Coates, John, "The Naval Architecture and Oar Systems of Ancient Galleys", pp. 127-41
    • Dotson, John E, "Economics and Logistics of Galley Warfare", pp. 217-23
    • Hocker, Frederick M., "Late Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic Galleys and Fleets", pp. 86-100
    • Morrison, John, "Hellenistic Oared Warships 399-31 BC", pp. 66-77
    • Rankov, Boris, "Fleets of the Early Roman Empire, 31 BC-AD 324", pp. 78-85
    • Shaw, J. T., "Oar Mechanics and Oar Power in Ancient Galleys", pp. 163-71
    • Wachsmann, Shelley, "Paddled and Oared Ships Before the Iron Age", pp. 10-25
  • Guilmartin, John Francis, Gunpowder and Galleys: Changing Technology and Mediterranean Warfare at Sea in the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge University Press, London. 1974. ISBN 0-521-20272-8
  • Hattendorf, John B. & Unger, Richard W. (editors), War at Sea in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Woodbridge, Suffolk. 2002. ISBN 0-85115-903-6[2]
    • Balard, Michel, "Genoese Naval Forces in the Mediterranean During the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries", pp. 137-49
    • Bill, Jan, "Scandinavian Warships and Naval Power in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries", pp. 35-51
    • Doumerc, Bernard, "An Exemplary Maritime Republic: Venice at the End of the Middle Ages", pp. 151-65
    • Friel, Ian, "Oars, Sails and Guns: the English and War at Sea c. 1200-c. 1500", pp. 69-79
    • Glete, Jan, "Naval Power and Control of the Sea in the Baltic in the Sixteenth Century", pp. 215-32
    • Hattendorf, John B., "Theories of Naval Power: A. T. Mahan and the Naval History of Medieval and Renaissance Europe", pp. 1-22
    • Mott, Lawrence V., "Iberian Naval Power, 1000-1650", pp. 103-118
    • Pryor, John H., "Byzantium and the Sea: Byzantine Fleets and the History of the Empire in the Age of the Macedonian Emperors, c. 900-1025 CE", pp. 83-104
    • Rodger, Nicholas A. M., "The New Atlantic: Naval Warfare in the Sixteenth Century", pp. 231-47
    • Runyan, Timothy J., "Naval Power and Maritime Technology During the Hundred Years War", pp. 53-67
  • Hutchinson, Gillian, Medieval Ships and Shipping. Leicester University Press, London. 1997. ISBN 0-7185-0117-9
  • Norman, Hans (red.), Skärgårdsflottan: uppbyggnad, militär användning och förankring i det svenska samhället 1700-1824. Historiska media, Lund. 2000. ISBN 91-88930-50-5
  • Lehmann, L. Th., Galleys in the Netherlands. Meulenhoff, Amsterdam. 1984. ISBN: 90-290-1854-2
  • Morrison, John S., Coates, John F. & Rankov, N. B., The Athenian Trireme: the History and Reconstruction of An Ancient Greek Warship (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2000. ISBN 0-521-32202-2
  • Pryor, John H., Geography, Technology, and War: Studies in the Maritime History of the Mediterranean, 649–1571 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1991. 0-521-42892-0[3]
  • Rodgers, William Ledyard, Naval Warfare Under Oars, 4th to 16th Centuries: A Study of Strategy, Tactics and Ship Design. United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland. 1939.
  • Unger, Richard W. The Ship in Medieval Economy 600-1600 Croom Helm, London. 1980. ISBN 0-85664-949-X
  • Westerdahl, Christer, Crossroads in ancient shipbuilding: proceedings of the sixth International symposium on boat and ship archaeology, Roskilde 1991. Oxbow, Oxford. 1994. ISBN 0-946897-70-0

cuisine historyEdit

  • Food in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays Melitta Weiss Adamson (editor). Garland, New York. 1995. ISBN 0-8153-1345-4
  • Adamson, Melitta Weiss Food in Medieval Times. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. 2004. ISBN 0-313-32147-7
  • Albala, Ken, (2003) Food in early modern Europe, 1500-1800 ISBN 0-313-31962-6
  • The Cambridge world history of food (2000), editors Kenneth F. Kiple, Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas ISBN 0-521-40216-6
  • Coe, Sophie D. (1994) America's first cuisines ISBN 0-292-71159-X (paperback)
  • Dalby, Andrew (2003), Flavours of Byzantium ISBN 1-903-01814-5
  • Dembinska, Maria Food and drink in medieval Poland: rediscovering a cuisine of the past, translated by Magdalena Thomas, revised and adapted by William Woys Weaver. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. 1999. ISBN 0-8122-3224-0
  • Freedman, Paul Out of the East: Spices and the Medieval Imagination. Yale University Press, New Haven. 2008. ISBN 978-0-300-11199-6
  • Henisch, Bridget Ann Fast and Feast: Food in Medieval Society. The Pennsylvania State Press, University Park. 1976. ISBN 0-271-01230-7
  • (in Danish) Kjersgaard, Erik (1978) Mad og øl i Danmarks middelalder (summary in English) ISBN 87-480-0082-5
  • Mennell, Stephen, All manners of food: Eating and taste in England and France from the Middle Ages to the present. (Urbana 1996)
  • Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R. (1990) Aztec medicine, health, and nutrition ISBN 0-8135-1562-9
  • Regional Cuisines of Medieval Europe: A Book of Essays edited by Melitta Weiss Adamson (editor). Routledge, New York. 2002 ISBN 0-415-92994-6
  • Scully, Terence The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge. 1995 ISBN 0-85115-611-8
  • Strong, Roy (2003) Feast: A History of Grand Eating ISBN 0-7126-6759-8
  • Tomasik, Timothy J. & Vitullo, Juliann M. (editors) At the Table: Metaphorical and Material Cultures of Food in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 18. Brepols, Turnhout. ISBN 9782503523989
  • Wilson, Anne Constance, The Appetite and the Eye. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. 1991. ISBN 0-7486-0101-5
  • van Winter, Johanna Maria, Spices and Comfits: Collected Papers on Medieval Food. Prospect Books, Devon. 2007. ISBN 978-1-903018-45-3

SwedishEdit

  • (in Swedish) Du Rietz, Richard, Gastronomisk spegel. historisk översikt jämte förteckning över svenska kok- och hushållsböcker fram till 1850. (Stockholm, 1953)
  • (in Swedish) Söderlind, Ulrica (2006) Skrovmål: kosthållning och matlagning i den svenska flottan från 1500-tal till 1700-tal. ISBN 91-7331-002-6 (abstract and summary in English)
  • (in Swedish) Helmius, Agneta "Det Olyckliga Swenska Fruentimret": Om kokboksförfattarinnan Anna Maria Rückerschöld och kvinnors villkor på 1700-talet. Polhemsstiftelsen i Stjernsund, Hedemora. 1993.
  • (in Swedish) Ärlemalm, Ingrid Cajsa Warg, Hiram och de andra: om svenska kokboksförfattarinnor. Ordalaget, Bromma. 2000. ISBN 91-89086-15-5
  • (in Swedish) Morell, Mats, Studier i den svenska livsmedelskonsumtionens historia: hospitalhjonens livsmedelskonsumtion 1621-1872. (Uppsala 1987)
  • (in Swedish) Metzger, Jonathan, I köttbullslandet: konstruktionen av svenskt och utländskt på det kulinariska fältet. (Stockholm 2006)
  • (in Swedish) Armfelt Hansell, Örjan, Mormors sylt och farmors saft. (Stockholm 1970)
  • (in Swedish) Blomqvist, Hans, Mat och dryck i Sverige. Litteraturöversikt. (Stockholm 1980)
  • (in Swedish) Palmær, Margit, Cajsa Warg och hennes kokbok: Cajsa Wargs kokbok utgiven i urval med kulturhistorisk inledning. (Stockholm 1985)
  • (in Swedish) Wikström, Kersti, Märta Stures hushållsbok. (Stockholm, 2007)

DanishEdit

  • Gold, Carol, Danish Cookbooks: Domesticity & National Identity 1616-1901. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 2007. ISBN 0-295-98682-4

smokingEdit

linguisticsEdit

medieval economyEdit

  • Hunt, Edwin S. & Murray, James H. A history of business in Medieval Europe, 1200-1550 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1999. ISBN 0-521-49923-2
  • Unger, Richard W. The Ship in Medieval Economy 600-1600 Croom Helm, London. 1980. ISBN 0-85664-949-X
  • The Cambridge Economic History of Europe: Vol. 2, Trade and Industry in the Middle Ages Postan, M.M. & Miller, Edward (editors), 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1987. ISBN 0-521-08709-0
  • Wood, Diana Medieval Economic Thought Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2002. ISBN 0-521-45260-0

misc.Edit

  • (in Swedish) Andersson, Mattias Porr - en bästsäljande historia. 2005. ISBN 91-518-4376-5
  • The Fontana Economic History of Europe: The Middle Ages. Fontana, London. 1972. ISBN 0-00-632841-5
  • Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: an Encyclopedia Thomas Glick, Steven J. Livesey, Faith Wallis (editors). Routledge, New York. 2005. ISBN 0-415-96930-1
  • The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt Donald B. Redford, editor in chief. 2001. ISBN 0-19-510234-7
  • Fischer, David Hackett Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America Oxford University Press, New York. 1989. ISBN 0-19-503794-4

Further readingEdit

KB

  • Casson, Lionel, The Ancient Mariners: Seafarers and Sea Fighters of the Mediterranean in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press, Princeton. 1991. ISBN 978-0691014777 (SUB)
  • Friel, Ian, The Good Ship: ships, shipbuilding and technology in England, 1200-1520. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 1995. ISBN 0-7141-0574-0
  • Lane, Frederic Chapin, Venetian ships and shipbuilders of the Renaissance, (New edition), Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 1992 [1934]. ISBN 0-8018-4514-9[4]
  • Mallett, Michael E., The Florentine Galleys in the Fifteenth Century: With the Diary of Luca di Maso degli Albizzi, Captain of the galleys 1429-1430. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1967.

SU

  • Westerdahl, Christer, Crossroads in ancient shipbuilding: proceedings of the sixth International symposium on boat and ship archaeology, Roskilde 1991. Oxbow, Oxford. 1994. ISBN 0-946897-70-0

SH

VA

  • Michael Wedde, "On the alleged connection between the early Greek galley and the watercraft of the Nordic rock art" (pp. 57-71) in European Association of Archaeologists. Meeting, The Aegean Bronze Age in relation to the wider European context: papers from a session at the eleventh annual meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Cork, 5-11 September 2005. Archaeopress, Oxford. 2008. ISBN 978-1-4073-0187-7
  • Casson, Lionel, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, Md, 1995[1971] ISBN 0-8018-5130-0
  • Gardiner, Robert, The archaeology of medieval ships and harbours in northern Europe: papers based on those presented to an International symposium on boat and ship archaeology at Bremerhaven in 1979. Oxford, 1979. ISBN: 0-86054-068-5

SSM

  • Gardiner, Robert & Unger, Richard W. (editors), Cogs, Caravels and Galleons: The Sailing Ship 1000-1650. Conway Maritime Press, London. 1994. ISBN 0-85177-560-8
  • Symonds, Craig L., New aspects of naval history: selected papers presented at the fourth Naval history symposium, United States Naval academy, 25-26 October 1979 Naval Inst. P., Annapolis. 1981. ISBN 0-87021-495-0 (ALB)

GU