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The Swamp Harrier, Circus approximans, also known as the Marsh Harrier, Australasian Harrier, Kāhu or New Zealand Hawk is a large, slim harrier in the family Accipitridae. The brown and white bird of prey is one of the largest representatives of its genus, and feeds mainly on rodents, rabbits, hares and birds, and often on carrion. Its strongly disjoint range covers parts of Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and the islands of southern Oceania. With the exception of Australia and Tasmania, the marsh harrier is a non-migratory bird. It lives in wetlands, such as marshes, swamps and river banks, but also hunts in fields and farmp.

Especially in New Zealand where it is the largest bird of prey, the swamp harrier has developed away from the usual habits of its genus towards becoming mainly a carrion eater.[1][2] Also, because of its strong build, resembles buzzards in diet and hunting behavior more than other hawkp.

In Māori tradition the Swamp Harrier or Kāhu symbolises chieftainship, and is associated with the culture hero Māui and his quest for fire. The traditions of certain Aboriginal peoples say the Swamp Harrier or Joongabilbil was a bringer of fire.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ David Baker-Gabb: The Diet of the Australasian Harrier in Manawatu-Rangitikei Sand Country. In: Notornis. 28, No. 4, 1981, p. 241–254.
  2. ^ Neil Hetherington: Species Profile: Australasian Harrier www.canterburynature.org. September 2006. Accessed June 1, 2010.

BibliographyEdit

  • David Baker-Gabb: Aspects of the biology of the Australasian Harrier. (Circus aeruginosus approximans Peale 1848): a thesis presented for the degree of Master of Science by thesis only in Zoology at Massey University. Massey University, 1978.
  • David Baker-Gabb: Remarks on the Taxonomy of the Australasian Harrier (Circus approximans). In: Notornis. 26, No. 4, 1979, p. 325–329.
  • David Baker-Gabb: The Diet of the Australasian Harrier in Manawatu-Rangitikei Sand Country. In: Notornip. 28, No. 4, 1981, p. 241–254.
  • David Baker-Gabb: Ecological Release and Behavioural and Ecological Flexibility in Marsh Harriers on Islandp. In: Emu 82, No. 2 1986, p. 71–81.
  • David Baker-Gabb: Wing-tags, winter ranges and movements of Swamp Harriers Circus approximans in southeastern Australia. In: Penny Olsen (Hrsg.): Australian Raptor Studies. Australasian Raptor Association, R.A.O.U. Melbourne 1993. p. 248–261.
  • David Baker-Gabb: Auditory location of prey by three Australian raptorp. In: Penny Olsen (Hrsg.): Australian Raptor Studies. Australasian Raptor Association, R.A.O.U. Melbourne 1993. p. 295–298.
  • Walter Lawry Buller: A History of the Birds of New Zealand. 1888. p. 204–212.
  • Les Christidis, Walter Boles: Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, 2008. ISBN 0643065113, p. 117–118.
  • John F. M. Fennel: An Observation of Carrion Preferrence by the Australasian Harrier (Circus approximans gouldi). In: Notornip. 27, No. 4, 1980, p. 404–405.
  • James Ferguson-Lees, David A. Christie: Raptors of the World. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001, ISBN 0618127623, p. 144–145, p. 503–505.
  • James Ferguson-Lees, David A. Christie: Greifvögel der Welt. Franck-Kosmos Verlag, Stuttgart 2009. ISBN 9783440115091, p. 150.
  • Nick C. Fox: Some morphological data on the Australasian Harrier (Circus approximans gouldi) in New Zealand. In: Notornip. 24, No. 1, 1977, p. 9–19.
  • L. A. Hedley: Some observations of a communal roost of the Australian Harrier. In: Notornis 23, No. 2, 1976, p. 85–89.
  • Penny Olsen, T. G. Marples: Geographic Variation in Egg Size, Clutch Size and Date of Laying of Australian Raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes). In: Emu 93, No. 3, 1993. p. 167–179.
  • R. J. Pierce, R. F. Maloney: Responses of Harriers in the MacKenzie Basin to the abundance of rabbitp. In: Notornis 36, No. 1, 1989, p. 1–12.
  • R. E. Redhead: Some aspects of the feeding of the harrier. In: Notornis 16, No. 4, 1969. p. 262–284.
  • Michael Sharland: The Swamp Harrier as a Migrant. In: Emu 58, No. 2, 1958. p. 74–80.
  • Robert E. Simmons: Harriers of the World: Their Behaviour and Ecology. Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 0198549644.
  • Robert E. Simmons, Leo A. T. Legra: Is the Papuan Harrier a globally threatened species? Ecology, climate change threats and first population estimates from Papua New Guinea. In: Bird Conservation International. 19, No. 1, 2009, p. 1–13.
  • Andrew M. Tollan: Maintenance Energy Requirements and Energy Assimilation Efficiency of the Australasian Harrier. In: Ardea. 76, No. 2, 1988, p. 181–186.
  • Jennifer Marie Youl: Lead Exposure in Free-ranging Kea (Nestor notabilis), Tahake (Porphyrio hochstetteri) and Australasian Harriers (Circus approximans) in New Zealand. Massey University, Palmerston North 2009. p. 1–31 and 87–108.


Article sections

Most of the bird species articles have a common structure which include various combinations of the following:

   * Identification or Description
   * Taxonomy and systematics
   * Distribution and habitat
   * Behaviour and ecology
         o Breeding
         o Food and feeding
         o Threats or Survival
   * In culture or Relationship to humans
   * Status

Additional sections may be included to cover aspects that are particularly interesting or well studied in that species.

1 Features
1.1 looks and physique
1.2 moulting
1.3 flight silhouette ??
1.4 vocalisations
2 Distribution
3 migration
4 habitat
5 way of life
5.1 Hunting and diet
5.2 Social behavior
5.3 territorial behavior and population density
5.4 courtship and mating
5.5 hatching and rearing of nestlings
6 Systematics
6.1 External systematics and evolutionary history
6.2 Internal classification
7 status
8 causes of mortality and risk
9 The swamp harrier in mythology
10 links
10.1 Literature
10.2 External links
10.3 References


BibliographyEdit

  • Arkins, A. (2003). The Cabbage Tree. Auckland. Reed publishing.
  • Beever, R. E., Forster, R. E., Rees-George, J., Robertson, G. I., Wood, G.A. & Winks, C.J. (1996). Sudden Decline of the Cabbage Tree (Cordyline australis): Search For The Cause. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 20, 53–68.
  • Best, Elsdon (1931). "Maori agriculture". Journal of the Polynesian Society. Wellington: Polynesian Society. pp. 1–22.
  • Bok-mun Ho (2006). "Cordyline obtecta". Australian National Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
  • "Cordyline australis". New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
  • "Cordyline australis". Flora of New Zealand. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  • Cowan, J. (1930). "The Maori: Yesterday and To-day". New Zealand Electronic Text Centre. Originally published by Whitcombe and Tombs Limited, Christchurch. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  • Forster, G. (1777). A Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty's Sloop Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years, 1772, 3, 4, and 5. (1777)
  • Harris, W. (2001). Horticultural and conservation significance of the genetic variation of cabbage trees (Cordyline spp.). In: Oates, M. R. ed. New Zealand plants and their story: proceedings of a conference held in Wellington 1–3 October 1999. Lincoln, Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture. Pp. 87–91.
  • Harris, W. (2002). The cabbage tree. Journal of the Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture, 5, 3–9.
  • Harris, W. (2003). Genotypic variation of height growth and trunk diameter of Cordyline australis (Lomandraceae) grown at three locations in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 41, 637–652.
  • Harris, W. (2004). Genotypic variation of dead leaf retention by Cordyline australis (Lomandraceae) populations and influence on trunk surface. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 42, 833–844.
  • Harris, Warwick (2001). "Variation in response to cold damage by populations of Cordyline australis and of some other species of Cordyline (Lomandraceae)". New Zealand Journal of Botany, Vol. 39. The Royal Society of New Zealand. pp. 147–159. Retrieved 2010-03-15. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • McEwen, W. M. (1978). The food of the New Zealand pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae). New Zealand Journal of Ecology 10 (2):99–108.
  • Rees-George, J., Robertson, G. I., & Hawthorne, B.T. (1990). Sudden decline of cabbage trees (Cordyline australis) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1990, Vol. 28: 363-366.
  • Salmon J. T. (1973). The Native Trees of New Zealand. Wellington. AH & AW Reed. ISBN 0-589-01340-8
  • Scheele, S. (2007). The 2006 Banks Memorial Lecture: Cultural uses of New Zealand native plants. New Zealand Garden Journal 1:10–16. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  • Simpson, P. (2000). Dancing Leaves: The story of the New Zealand cabbage tree: Tī Kōuka. Christchurch. Canterbury University Press.

To process and add=Edit

  • "Tī, cabbage trees". Maori Uses of Plants Database. School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
  • Costello (2003). Abiotic disorders of landscape plants. ANR Publications. ISBN 1879906589.
  • James Cowan (1930). "The Maori: Yesterday and To-day". New Zealand Electronic Text Centre. Originally published by Whitcombe and Tombs Limited, Christchurch. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  • Dawson, John (1988). Forest Vines to Snow Tussocks: The Story of New Zealand Plants. Wellington: Victoria University Press. p. 213. ISBN 0864730470.
  • Forster, G. (1777). A Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty's Sloop Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5. London.
  • Harris, Warwick (1999). "The domestication of New Zealand plants" (PDF). New Zealand Plants and their Story: Proceedings of a conference held in Wellington, 1-3 October 1999. Wellington: Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture. pp. 59–69. Retrieved 2010-03-15. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |month= and |coauthors= (help)
  • McEwen, W. M. 1978. The food of the New Zealand pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae). New Zealand Journal of Ecology 1:99–108.
  • A. L. Poole (1966). "Cabbage Tree - Ti". An Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Editor: A. H. McLintock. Originally published in 1966. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
  • Rees-George, J., Robertson, G. I., & Hawthorne, B.T. (1990). Sudden decline of cabbage trees (Cordyline australis) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1990, Vol. 28: 363-366.
  • Salmon J. T. (1973). The Native Trees of New Zealand. Wellington. AH & AW Reed. ISBN 0-589-01340-8, pp. 348-349.
  • Scheele, S. (2007). The 2006 Banks Memorial Lecture: Cultural uses of New Zealand native plants]. New Zealand Garden Journal 1.
  • "Ti Kouka" (PDF). Some Tiri Plants, continued, Department of Conservation. pp. 163–164. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
  • "Ti Kouka". Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi Inc. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
  • Williams, H. W. (1971). A dictionary of the Maori language (7th ed.). Wellington, New Zealand: Government Printer.