Razing of Friesoythe Leo Tornikios Zoë Porphyrogenita Constantine VIII Petronius Maximus Romanos III Argyros Macuahuitl Publius Cornelius Dolabella (consul 10) Female Red Guards of the Finnish Civil War Type of Constans Constantine Dalassenos (duke of Antioch) Battle of Petroe Gothic War (535–554) Michael IV the Paphlagonian Septimius Severus Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor) Theodora Porphyrogenita (11th century) Anastasius I Dicorus Lucius Valerius Flaccus Battle of Sluys Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus Gaius Vettius Sabinianus Julius Hospes Maurice (emperor) Lucius Manlius Torquatus SMS S36) Razing of Friesoythe Battle of Neville's Cross) Isaac I Komnenos) Dutch expedition to Valdivia) Justin I) Flavius Arinthaeus) Lucius Neratius Marcellus) Siege of Berwick Battle of Auberoche Battle of Bergerac Battle of Lunalonge Battle of Neville's Cross Battle of Damme Battle of Winchelsea Siege of Berwick (1333) Gascon campaign of 1345 Battle of Calais (1349) Siege of Aiguillon) Battle of Bouvines) Battle of Auberoche Battle of Blanchetaque) Battle of Neville's Cross) Lancaster's chevauchée of 1346 Battle of Caen (1346)) SB Centaur) Gascon campaign of 1345 Siege of Aiguillon Siege of Berwick) Battle of Auberoche) Siege of Aiguillon) Lancaster's chevauchée of 1346 Battle of Bergerac Gascon campaign of 1345 Battle of Cape Ecnomus Battle of Auberoche) Gascon campaign of 1345) Gascon campaign of 1345 Battle of Bergerac) Siege of Aiguillon) Siege of Calais) Battle of Caen (1346) Lancaster's chevauchée of 1346) Battle of Blanchetaque Battle of Caen (1346)) Chevauchée of Edward III (1346)) Siege of Calais (1346–1347) Battle of Blanchetaque) Battle of Crécy) Battle of Cape Ecnomus Battle of Sluys Crécy campaign) Black Prince's chevauchée of 1355) Siege of Berwick) Battle of Crécy) Siege of Calais (1346–1347)) Battle of Calais (1349) Crécy campaign Black Prince's chevauchée of 1355) Battle of Blanchetaque) Lancaster's chevauchée of 1346) Battle of Neville's Cross Battle of Calais) Battle of Cape Ecnomus) Black Prince's chevauchée of 1355 Battle of Lagos Battle of Pontvallain) Razing of Friesoythe) Battle of Calais Battle of Lagos) Battle of the Aegates Battle of Drepana Battle of Sluys) First Punic War Battle of the Lipari Islands Battle of Drepana) Mercenary War Battle of the Bagradas River Battle of Adys Siege of Lilybaeum Razing of Friesoythe Treaty of Lutatius Battle of the Aegates Battle of Panormus Gisco (died 239 BC) Mercenary War Battle of Cape Hermaeum First Punic War Battle of the Lipari Islands Battle of the Bagradas River Siege of Lilybaeum (250–241 BC) Battle of Panormus Battle of Sluys Treaty of Lutatius Battle of Adys Battle of Dunbar Roman withdrawal from Africa, 255 BC Treaty of Lutatius Battle of Lagos Battle of Leptis Parva Battle of Crécy Hasdrubal, son of Hanno Battle of Ticinus Battle of the Bagradas River (255 BC) Battle of Ibera Battle of Dunbar (1650) Third Punic War Battle of the Trebia First Punic War Punic Wars Siege of Carthage (Third Punic War) Mathos Spendius Battle of Ecnomus Second Punic War Battle of Lake Trasimene Punic Wars Siege of Tunis (Mercenary War) Battle of the Saw Battle of Utica Battle of the Bagradas River Third Punic War Punic Wars Battle of Pontvallain Battle of Inverkeithing Spendius Battle of the Saw Battle of Heraklion Mercenary War Battle of Rethymno Battle of the Saw Battle of Heraklion Battle of Rethymno Siege of Lilybaeum (250–241 BC) Battle of Inverkeithing Battle of Dupplin Moor Battle of the Aegates Battle of Rethymno Battle of the Saw Battle of Heraklion Lancaster's Normandy chevauchée of 1356 Battle of Rethymno Treaty of Guînes Battle of Dupplin Moor Treaty of Lutatius Weardale campaign Lancaster's Normandy chevauchée of 1356 First Punic War Treaty of Guînes Weardale campaign Burnt Candlemas Battle of Caen (1346) Battle of Halidon Hill Burnt Candlemas English invasion of Scotland (1650) Crécy campaign Battle of Halidon Hill Hamilcar's victory with Naravas Battle of Dunbar (1650) Siege of Guines (1352) Battle of Kinghorn Battle of Oroscopa Second Battle of Cape Finisterre (1747) Roman withdrawal from Africa (255 BC) Siege of Breteuil Battle of the Bagradas River (c. 240 BC) Sieges of Berwick (1355 and 1356) Hundred Years' War (1345–1347) Truce of Calais Battle of Bergerac Anglo-Scottish war (1650–1652) Siege of Guînes (1352) Battle of Oroscopa Mercenary War Second Battle of Cape Finisterre Hundred Years' War, 1345–1347 Truce of Calais Siege of Tunis (Mercenary War) Siege of Dundee Hamilcar's victory with Naravas Cscr-featuredtopic.svg Battle of Panormus Black Prince's chevauchée of 1356 Battle of Poitiers Burnt Candlemas Featured article star.svg Siege of Breteuil Black Prince's chevauchée of 1356 Battle of Drepana John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke Second War of Scottish Independence Treaty of Guînes Battle of Poitiers Gisco (died 239 BC) Battle of Oroscopa Siege of Dundee Battle of Utica Second War of Scottish Independence Battle of Heraklion Siege of Guînes (1352) Lancaster's Normandy chevauchée of 1356 Sieges of Berwick (1355 and 1356) Battle of Halidon Hill Anglo-Scottish war (1650–1652) Battle of Winchelsea Second Punic War Siege of Calais (1346–1347) Battle of Ticinus Second Punic War Second Battle of Cape Finisterre


The human eye is a wonderful device. With a little effort, it can fail to see even the most glaring injustice.

This editor is taking a lunch break.

A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus:

  1. What am I trying to say?
  2. What words will express it?
  3. What image or idiom will make it clearer?
  4. Is this image fresh enough to have an effect?

And he will probably ask himself two more:

  1. Could I put it more shortly?
  2. Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly?

But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. They will construct your sentences for you - even think your thoughts for you, to a certain extent - and at need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself.

  1. Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.
  2. Never use a long word where a short one will do.
  3. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
  4. Never use the passive where you can use the active.
  5. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.
  6. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.

To write or even speak English is not a science but an art. There are no reliable words. Whoever writes English is involved in a struggle that never lets up even for a sentence. He is struggling against vagueness, against obscurity, against the lure of the decorative adjective, against the encroachment of Latin and Greek, and, above all, against the worn-out phrases and dead metaphors with which the language is cluttered up.

A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outlines and covering up the details ...

― George Orwell, Politics and the English Language


How shall I explain the dying that was done?
How shall I convey that each one
Did the callous calculus of life
Solved the dreadful algebra of necessity
And wrote the value of their days
Against the bloody margin
In an understated hand?
They will want to know:
How was the audit done?
Blood drop.svg