Upāsaka and Upāsikā
Upāsaka (masculine) or Upāsikā (feminine) are from the Sanskrit and Pāli words for "attendant". This is the title of followers of Buddhism (or, historically, of Gautama Buddha) who are not monks, nuns, or novice monastics in a Buddhist order, and who undertake certain vows. In modern times they have a connotation of dedicated piety that is best suggested by terms such as "lay devotee" or "devout lay follower".
The five vows to be held by upāsakas are referred to as the "Five Precepts" (Pāli: pañcasīla):
- I will not take the life of a sentient being;
- I will not take what has not been given to me;
- I will refrain from sexual misconduct;
- I will refrain from false speech;
- I will refrain from becoming intoxicated.
In the Theravada tradition, on Uposatha days, devout lay practitioners may request the "Eight Precepts" from monastics (Pali: uposathaṃ samādiyati). It was a widespread practice in China as well, and is still practiced.
The eight precepts is a list of precepts that are observed by lay devotees on observance days and festivals. They include general precepts such as refraining from killing, but also more specific ones, such as abstaining from cosmetics. The precepts were probably based on pre-Buddhist brahmanical practices. Since the eight precepts are often upheld on the Buddhist uposatha days, they are called the uposatha vows or one-day precepts in such context. They are considered to support meditation practice, and are often observed when staying in monasteries and temples.In some periods and places, such as in 7th–10th-century China, the precepts were widely observed. In modern times, there have been revival movements and important political figures that have observed them continuously.
In traditional Theravada communities, a non-Buddhist becomes a Buddhist lay disciple by repeating the ancient formulas for the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts in response to the formal administrations of a monk or by himself in himself or in front of a stupa or an image of the Buddha. Newborns of Buddhist parents are traditionally initiated by being brought on their first outing to a temple on a full-moon or festival day where they are presented to the Triple Gem.
In both the Chinese Ch'an and Japanese Zen traditions, a ceremony of taking refuge in the Triple Gem as well as the receiving of the precepts (受戒 Hanyu Pinyin: shòujiè; Japanese: jukai) is a type of lay ordination.
The disciple hoping to receive the precepts first pays respects to the six directions, which represent their parents, teacher, husband or wife, friends, religious master and employees (traditionally servants). Honoring the six directions is a "means fulfilling one's reciprocal responsibilities in each of these relationships".
A person who has honored these relationships and paid his respects to the six directions must then receive permission from his parents to accept the precepts. If they agree, he informs his spouse and those under his employment. The disciple should then get permission from his king, though for obvious reasons this last procedure is no longer widely observed.
The disciple, having paid his respects to the six directions and having the relevant permissions, may now ask a monastic to help him receive the precepts. (In modern times, these ceremonies are normally held on a regular basis at temples and presided over by the temple master or his deputy, and one would not ask a random monk or nun to perform the ceremony.)
The monastic and disciple then engage in a dialog, with the monastic asking questions and the disciple answering. The monastic asks the disciple if he has paid respects to the six directions and if he has the relevant permissions. The monk will ask a series of questions that ensure the practitioner has not committed grave offenses and is both physically and mentally fit to receive the precepts.
The monastic explains the benefits of the precepts as well as the negative consequences of breaking them, and asks if the disciple is prepared to accept them and remain dedicated to the Triple Gem. Next, the monastic asks the disciple if to follow additional habits to prevent breaking the precepts, to discourage others from breaking them, and to avoid excessive attachment to the five skandhas. If the practitioner is prepared, the monk asks the disciple to practice all the advice for six months while remaining under the monk's regular observation.
If, after six months, the disciple has upheld the precepts well, he may ask the monastic for formal taking of the precepts. The disciple will then take refuge in the Triple Gem, and the monastic will then ensure the disciple is prepared to take on all (as opposed to only some) of the precepts. If the disciple commits to accepting all the precepts, and recites them with the monk, then he has finished his lay ordination.
The chapter closes with a description of consequences of breaking the precepts and the obligations that one must take on after receiving the precepts.
Traditionally, in India, upāsakas wore white robes, representing a level of renunciation between lay people and monastics. For this reason, some traditional texts make reference to "white-robed lay people" (avadāta-vassana). This practice can still be found in contemporary Theravadin temples, especially during the occasion when a non-Buddhist converts to Buddhism or when one is observing the Eight Precepts on an uposatha day.
In the Chinese tradition, both upāsakas and upāsikās are permitted to wear robes for temple ceremonies and retreats, as well as home practice. Upāsakas and upāsikās wear long sleeved black robes called haiqing (海青), symbolic of their refuge in the Triple Jewel. A brown kasaya called a manyi (缦衣) worn outside the black robes is symbolic of their upholding of the precepts. Unlike monastics, they are not permitted to regularly wear robes outside functions other than temple activities or Buddhist disciplines.
Some Japanese laity can also be seen wearing a rakusu, a short cloth worn around the neck of Zen Buddhist laity. Another form is the wagesa, a short surplice in the form of a strip of brocade fabric worn around the neck, with the temple mon emblazoned on it. It also acts as a simplified type of kasaya.
Famous lay followersEdit
From the Buddhist scripturesEdit
In the Pali Canon's Jivaka Sutta, the Buddha is asked, "Lord, to what extent is one a lay follower (upāsako)?" The Buddha replies that one takes refuge in the Triple Gem. Asked how one is a "virtuous lay follower" (upāsako sīlavā), the Buddha replies that one undertakes the Five Precepts. Asked how one practices being a lay follower "both for his own benefit & the benefit of others," the Buddha states that one is consummate oneself in and encourages others in the consummation of: conviction (saddhā); virtue (sīla); generosity (cāga); visiting monks; and, hearing, remembering, analyzing, understanding and practicing the Dhamma.
- Nattier (2003), p. 25, states that the etymology of upāsikā suggests "those who serve" and that the word is best understood as "'lay auxiliary' of the monastic community".
- Nattier (2003), p. 25, notes: "...[T]he term upāsaka (fem. upāsikā) ... is now increasingly recognized to be not a generic term for supporters of the Buddhist community who happen not to be monks or nuns, but a very precise category designating those lay adherents who have taken on specific vows. ...[T]hese dedicated lay Buddhists did not constitute a free-standing community, but were rather adjunct members of particular monastic organizations."
- Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 150, entry for "Upāsaka," available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:3992.pali[permanent dead link]; and, Encyclopædia Britannica (2007), entry for "upasaka," available at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9074383/upasaka. Also, see Nattier (2003), p. 25, quoted at length above, for recent scholarship on the Pali term's historical usage.
- Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), pp. 150-1, entry for "Uposatha," available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:4011.pali[permanent dead link]; also see: Harvey (1990), p. 192; and Kariyawasam (1995), chapter 3, "Poya Days," available at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/kariyawasam/wheel402.html#ch3.
- Buswell & Lopez 2013, Baguan zhai.
- Harvey 2000, p. 88.
- Keown 2004, p. 22.
- Tachibana 1992, p. 65.
- Keown 2004, Uposatha.
- Buswell & Lopez 2013, Upavāsa.
- Harvey 2000, p. 87.
- "Religions – Buddhism: Theravada Buddhism". BBC. 2 October 2002. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018.
- Watson 1988, p. 13.
- Harvey 2013, pp. 378–9.
- Keyes 1989, pp. 319–20.
- Fuengfusakul 1993, p. 157.
- Kariyawasam (1995), chapter 1, "Initiation and Worship," available at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/kariyawasam/wheel402.html#ch1.
- Phra Khantipalo,Going for Refuge http://www.sinc.sunysb.edu/Clubs/buddhism/khantipalo/goingrefuge.html
- The Light of Buddha, U Sein Nyo Tun, Vol. III, No. 10, 1958 https://web.archive.org/web/20120706235311/http://www.thisismyanmar.com/nibbana/snyotun3.htm
- From 'The Teachings of the Buddha', the Ministry of Religious Affairs, Yangon, 1997 http://www.thisismyanmar.com/nibbana/precept2.htm Archived 2011-01-01 at the Wayback Machine.
- Buddhist studies, secondary level, becoming a buddhist http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/bs-s17.htm
- Blooming in the Desert: Favorite Teachings of the Wildflower Monk, p. 63, at Google Books
- "Taisho Tripitaka Vol. 24, No. 1488". Archived from the original on 2012-07-31. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- Shih, Heng-ching (1994). The Sutra on Upāsaka Precepts (PDF). Berkeley: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. ISBN 0962561851.
- "Buddhist Studies (Secondary) Family and Society". www.buddhanet.net.
- Nattier (2003), p. 25 n. 32. Relatedly, in the para-canonical Milindapanha (Miln. VI, 4), King Milinda refers to "a layman — clad in white, enjoying sense pleasures, dwelling as master in a house crowded with wife and children..." (Mendis, p. 112).
- Regarding the wearing of white clothes on uposatha days, see, for instance, Kariyawasam (1995), chapter 3, "Poya Days," available at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/kariyawasam/wheel402.html#ch3.
- In this article, regarding the Jivaka Sutta (AN 8.26), English translations are from Thanissaro (1997) while the Pali is from SLTP (undated), 126.96.36.199.
- Thanissaro (1997). The Pali is: Kittāvatā nu kho bhante, upāsako hotīti (SLTP 188.8.131.52, undated).
- The Pali is: Yato kho jīvaka, buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gato hoti, dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gato hoti, saṇghaṃ saraṇaṃ gato hoti, ettāvatā kho jīvaka, upāsako hotīti (SLTP 184.108.40.206, undated).
- Thanissaro (1997). SLTP (undated).
- Bluck, Robert (2002). The Path of the Householder: Buddhist Lay Discipline in the Pali Canon, Buddhist Studies Review 19 (1), 1-18
- Buswell, Robert E. Jr.; Lopez, Donald S. Jr. (2013), Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (PDF), Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3, archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2018
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2007). "Upasaka." Retrieved 2007-10-24 from "Encyclopædia Britannica Online" at https://web.archive.org/web/20060621163706/http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9074383.
- Fuengfusakul, Apinya (1 January 1993), "Empire of Crystal and Utopian Commune: Two Types of Contemporary Theravada Reform in Thailand", Sojourn, 8 (1): 153–83, JSTOR 41035731
- Harvey, Peter (1990). An introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, history and practices (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31333-3.
- Harvey, Peter (2000), An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values and Issues (PDF), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-511-07584-1
- Harvey, Peter (2013), An introduction to Buddhism: teachings, history and practices (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-85942-4
- Kariyawasam, A.G.S. (1995). Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka (The Wheel Publication No. 402/404). Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved 2007-10-22 from "Access to Insight" (1996 transcription) at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/kariyawasam/wheel402.html.
- Keown, Damien (2004), A Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-157917-2
- Keyes, C.F. (1989), "Buddhist Politics and Their Revolutionary Origins in Thailand", International Political Science Review, 10 (2): 121–42
- Mendis, N.K.G. (2001). The Questions of King Milinda: An Abridgement of the Milindapañha. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 955-24-0067-8
- Nattier, Jan (2003). A Few Good Men: The Bodhisattva Path according to The Inquiry of Ugra (Ugraparpṛcchā). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-2607-8.
- Tachibana, S. (1992), The Ethics of Buddhism, Curzon Press, ISBN 978-0-7007-0230-5
- Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
- Watson, Burton (1988), "Buddhism in the Poetry of Po Chü-i", The Eastern Buddhist, 21 (1): 1–22, JSTOR 44361818
- Theravada resources for Upasakas
- Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series [SLTP] (undated). Gahapativaggo [in Pali] (AN 8). Available on-line at http://metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/4Anguttara-Nikaya/Anguttara5/8-atthakanipata/003-gahapativaggo-p.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997). Jivaka Sutta: To Jivaka (On Being a Lay Follower) (AN 8.26). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an08/an08.026.than.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.