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Coat of arms under Franco, displaying the motto "Una Grande Libre".

Una, Grande y Libre (English: One, Great and Free[1] or United, Great and Free[2]) was the Francoist tripartite motto which expressed the nationalist concept of Spain as being indivisible (preaching against separatism), imperial, and no sometida a influencias extranjeras (not submitted to foreign influences).

The motto was created by jonsist student Juan Aparicio López [es] (he also created the motto Por la Patria, el Pan y la Justicia; "for the Homeland, for Bread and for Justice" and was also behind the adoption of the Yoke and the Arrows as symbol of the JONS as well as the red-black flag).[3] It was later adopted by Falange Española de las JONS along other JONS' symbols.[4]

¡Una, Grande y Libre! was often used at the end of speeches. The leader would exclaim three times ¡España!, and the public would successively respond to each of these shouts with ¡Una!, ¡Grande!, and finally ¡Libre!. The effect was similar to the way Amen is used in church, as well as to the chant of "Sieg Heil!" in Nazi Germany. The theatre would continue with an almost choreographed script of ¡Arriba España!, ¡Arriba! José Antonio, ¡Presente!, Caídos por Dios y por España, ¡Presente!. ¡Viva Franco!, ¡Viva!, or just intoning ¡Franco, Franco, Franco…!

In his farewell message to the Spanish people, Franco referred to "the great task of making Spain united, great and free."[2]

The slogan was incorporated into the Falangist anthem, Cara al Sol; it ended with the stanza ¡España una! ¡España grande! ¡España libre! (Spain, one (united)! Spain, great! Spain, free!)


See alsoEdit

SourcesEdit

  1. ^ Quiroga, Alejandro (2015). "Spanish Fury: Football and National Identities under Franco". European History Quarterly. 45 (3): 523. doi:10.1177/0265691415587686.
  2. ^ a b Payne, Stanley (1988). The Franco Regime, 1936-1975. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 620. ISBN 0299110702.
  3. ^ Gejo Santos, María Isabel (2015). Tradición y modernidad.: Dos décadas de música en salamanca, 1940-1960. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. p. 399.
  4. ^ Rodríguez Labandeira, Jose (2017). La dialéctica de los puños y las pistolas. p. 111.