Typha orientalis

Typha orientalis, commonly known as bulrush or cumbungi,[2] is a perennial herbaceous plant in the genus Typha. It is native to Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, China and the Russian Far East (Sakhalin and Primorye).[3][4]

Typha orientalis
Leaves and flower spikes of Typha orientalis
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Typhaceae
Genus: Typha
T. orientalis
Binomial name
Typha orientalis
  • Typha japonica Miq.
  • Typha latifolia var. orientalis (C. Presl) Rohrb.
  • Typha muelleri Rohrb.
  • Typha orientalis var. brunnea Skvortsov in Baranov & Skvortsov
  • Typha shuttleworthii subsp. orientalis (C. Presl) Graebn.
  • Typha shuttleworthii var. orientalis (C. Presl) Rohrb.

T. orientalis is a wetland plant that grows on the edges of ponds, lakes and slow flowing rivers and streams.


Known as raupō in New Zealand,[5] the plant was quite useful to Māori. The rhizomes were cooked and eaten, while the flowers were baked into cakes. The leaves were used for roofs and walls and occasionally for canoe sails,[6] as well as a material for making kites.[7] Māori introduced the plant to the Chatham Islands.[citation needed]

A traditional Māori whare (house)


  1. ^ Zhuang, X. (2011). "Typha orientalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T168629A6524306. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T168629A6524306.en.
  2. ^ "Typha orientalis". Flora of Australia. Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Canberra. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  3. ^ "Distribution".
  4. ^ Flora of China, v 23 p 161.
  5. ^ Johnson, Peter (24 Sep 2007). "Wetlands - Reeds, rushes, sedges and low growers". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  6. ^ Lawrie Metcalf (1998). The Cultivation of New Zealand Native Grasses. Auckland, New Zealand: Random House. p. 48.
  7. ^ Neich, Roger (1996). "New Zealand Maori Barkcloth and Barkcloth Beaters". Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum. 33: 111–158. ISSN 0067-0464.