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TsNIIMash (Russian: ЦНИИмаш) is a Russian rocket and spacecraft scientific center, dealing with all phases of development from conceptual design to flight test. It specializes in the development of long range ballistic missiles, air defense missiles, and propulsion units the defense industry. It was established in 1946.[3]

Federal state unitary enterprise
IndustryDefense industry
Space industry
Aerospace industry
ProductsMissiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, rockets, spacecraft, satellite systems, electronics
Revenue$206 million[1] (2014)
Checkpoint NII-88 (TsNIIMash) on Pioneer Street, in 2011.

The name TsNIIMash is an initialism for Central Research Institute of Machine Building (Russian: Центральный научно-исследовательский институт машиностроения).



NII-88 (Scientific-Research Institute No.88) was established on May 13, 1946, located at what was then called Kaliningrad, Moscow Oblast (now Korolyov), northeast of Moscow. Based on his Plant No. 88, Dmitriy Ustinov had successfully lobbied to control post-war research and development of rockets in late 1945.

Impressed by his work in Germany on the analysis of the V-2, Ustinov appointed Sergey Korolev chief designer of section 3 on long-range missiles, later called OKB-1. In 1956, OKB-1 was removed from NII-88 to become an independent bureau.

Helmut Gröttrup headed a group of German scientists working for the Soviets at Branch 1 of NII-88 located on Gorodomlya Island. Their job was to help reconstruct a Russian Version of the V-2, called the R-1, after which they were returned to Germany. The facility was also spied on by American U-2 spy planes in the late 1950s.

It was renamed Central Research Institute of Machine Building in 1967.[4]


TsNIIMash performs the following activities:

  • Fundamental scientific and system research to prepare the basic strategy for spacecraft and rocket technology development.[5]
  • Theoretical calculations and experimental research on aeronautical and gas dynamic loads in the atmosphere of the Earth and other planets, and in outer space.
  • Analysis of the thermal resistance of thermal shields in high-temperature gas flows.[6]
  • Theoretical calculations and experimental qualification of designs under the influence of static, dynamic, shock, and thermal loads.
  • Ground control of spacecraft, as well as research and development of new methods and algorithms for guidance, ballistics and navigation.
  • Development of methods and instruments for mission control during orbital insertion, attitude re-orientation, stabilization, orbital maneuvering, re-entry and landing.[7]
  • Reliability aspects of spacecraft and rocket engineering.
  • Standardization and harmonization of spacecraft and rocket engineering products, as well as certification and quality control.
  • Introduction of space technology in the national economy.


  • 1946 - Kallistratov, Alexander D.
  • 1946 - 1950 - Honor, Leo R.
  • 1950 - 1952 - Rudnev, Konstantin
  • 1952 - 1953 - Yangel, Mikhail Kuzmich
  • 1953 - 1959 - Spiridonov, Alex S.
  • 1959 - 1961 - Tyulin, Georgy
  • 1961 - 1990 - Mozzhorin, Yuri Alexandrovich
  • 1990 - 2000 - Utkin, Vladimir Fedorovich
  • 2000 - 2008 - Anfimov Nicholas Apollonovich
  • 2008 - 2013 - Raikunov, Gennady G.[8]
  • 2013 - 2014 - Panichkin, Nikolai G.
  • from 2014 - Milkovskii, Alexander G.[9]

2018 espionage arrestsEdit

On 21 July 2018, FSB raided offices of TsNIIMash and Roscosmos Research and Analytical Center and arrested ten employees suspected of passing classified hypersonic Russian missile technologies to Western intelligence agencies. Arrested are accused of high treason.[10][11][12][13]

A senior researcher Sergey Meshcheryakov suspected of treason was put under house arrest in July 2019.[14]

See alsoEdit

  • TsNIIMash-Export espionage trial
  • TsNIITochMash - the Central Research Institute for Precision Machine Building, a Russian industrial design bureau.
  • 50 years of MCC
  • "Space science city Korolev" - Author: Posamentir R. D. M: publisher SP Struchenevsky O. V., ISBN 978-5-905234-12-5


External linksEdit