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The Trumai (or Trumaí; native name: Ho kod ke)[3] are an indigenous people of Brazil. They currently reside within the Xingu Indigenous Park, in the state of Mato Grosso. They have a population of 258 in 2014.[1] They were 97 in 2011 and 120 in 2006,[2] up from a low of 26 in 1966.

Total population
258 (2014)[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Brazil ( Mato Grosso)
Traditional tribal religion



Location of the Trumai villages in the Xingu [4]:164

The Trumai are one of the last groups to have settled on the upper Xingu River, moving there in the 19th century[1] from the region between the Xingu and Araguaia Rivers, as a result of attacks from another people.[5] They currently live in four villages in the Xingu Indigenous Park, Terra Preta, Boa Esperança, Steinen and Terra Nova, situated halfway from the Leonardo Villas-Bôas Post and the Diauarum Indigenous Post, where some families also live.

The Trumai are one of the ethnicities included in the standard cross-cultural sample.

They are considered the ones who introduced the jawari ritual ("hopep" in the Trumai language), that is, along with the kwarup, one of the most important inter-tribal festivals in the Upper Xingu cultural complex[6].


The Trumai are farmers, growing primarily manioc, peppers, and beans.[2][verification needed]


The Trumai language is not closely related to other languages, and it is considered a language isolate.[2] It is severely endangered, as children are becoming native speakers of Awetï, Suyá, or Portuguese.


  1. ^ a b c "Trumai: Introduction." Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d "Trumai." Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 Feb 2012.
  3. ^ "Trumai: Name."Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Retrieved 24 Feb 2012.
  4. ^ Guirardello-Damian R, Trumai K, Trumai T (2017). "Trumai". In Stenzel K, Franchetto B (eds.). On this and other worlds: Voices from Amazonia (pdf). Berlin: Language Science Press. pp. 163–185. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1008781. ISBN 978-3-96110-018-7.
  5. ^ Socioambiental history page
  6. ^ Almanaque Socioambiental Parque Indígena do Xingu 50 anos (PDF) (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Instituto Socioambiental. 2011. ISBN 978-85-85994-84-6.

Further readingEdit

  • Robert F. Murphy and Buell Quain. "The Trumai Indians of Central Brazil." American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 58, No. 4 (Aug., 1956), p. 747
  • Quain, Buell; Murphy, Robert F. (1955). The Trumai Indians of Central Brazil. Locust Valley, N.Y.: J. J. Augustin
  • Anne Sutherland Louis. "Alliance or Descent: The Trumai Indians of Central Brazil." Man, New Series, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Mar., 1971), pp. 18–29

External linksEdit