Tropical Storm Khanun (2012)

Severe Tropical Storm Khanun, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Enteng, was the first tropical cyclone to directly impact Korea in two years. It is the 8th named storm, the 3rd severe tropical storm, and overall, the 13th tropical cyclone to be monitored by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) during 2012. Khanun was also the first tropical storm to make a landfall over Korea in 2012. Khanun means "jack fruit" in Thai.[1]

Severe Tropical Storm Khanun (Enteng)
Severe tropical storm (JMA scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Khanun at peak intensity Jul 18 2012.jpg
Tropical Storm Khanun approaching South Korea at peak intensity on July 18
FormedJuly 14, 2012
DissipatedJuly 20, 2012
(Extratropical after July 19, 2012)
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 95 km/h (60 mph)
1-minute sustained: 95 km/h (60 mph)
Lowest pressure985 hPa (mbar); 29.09 inHg
Fatalities89 total
Damage$11.4 million (2012 USD)
Areas affectedSouth Korea, North Korea, Japan, Mariana Islands
Part of the 2012 Pacific typhoon season

Meteorological historyEdit

 
Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
  Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression

On July 14 at 02:30 UTC, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began monitoring an area of convection that had originated from a non-tropical low as it was located approximately 420 nautical miles (780 km; 485 mi) north-northeast of Guam. The low-level circulation was ill-defined, with the JTWC assessing its development potential within the next 24 hours as low.[2][3] At 06:00 UTC, the JTWC further upgraded its development potential within the next 24 hours to medium, with sea surface temperatures in the area around 30–32 °C (86–90 °F).[4] At 18:00 UTC, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded the system to a tropical depression as it was moving west-northwest.[5][a]

The depression was located in favorable conditions as convection flared to the east of an elongated low-level circulation, and on July 15 at 04:30 UTC, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the system as it was located approximately 235 nautical miles (435 km; 270 mi) south-southeast of Iwo Jima.[7] Convection continued to organize, and at 15:00 UTC, the JTWC upgraded the system to a tropical depression, giving it the unofficial designation of 08W.[8] On July 16 at 06:00 UTC, the JMA upgraded the depression to a tropical storm, assigning it the name Khanun.[9] The low-level circulation continued to consolidate,[10] and at 12:00 UTC, Khanun entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR), with the PAGASA giving it the local name Enteng.[11] It later exited the PAR at 18:00 UTC.[12] Khanun continued to organize, and at 15:00 UTC, the JTWC upgraded it to a tropical storm as it was located approximately 370 nautical miles (685 km; 425 mi) east-northeast of Kadena Air Base.[13] A weak eye feature appeared on microwave imagery,[14] and on July 17 at 11:00 UTC, Khanun made its closest approach to Okinawa, passing within 85 nautical miles (155 km; 100 mi) of the island.[15] Khanun peaked in intensity at 18:00 UTC, with maximum sustained winds of 95 kilometres per hour (60 mph) and a minimum central pressure of 985 hPa (mbar; 29.09 inHg).[16][b] On July 18, the JMA downgraded Khanun to a tropical storm south-southwest of Jeju Province. On July 18, 17:00 (UTC), Khanun made landfall over Haenam County, South Jeolla Province, South Korea as a tropical storm, and soon made its extratropical transition over Korea, as it weakened into a tropical depression. On July 22, the remnant low dissipated completely.[citation needed]

Preparations and impactEdit

 
Tropical Storm Khanun over Korea, on July 19, as it becomes Extratropical.

South KoreaEdit

Losses across the country were at 1.5 billion (US$11.4 million).[17]

North KoreaEdit

In North Korea, state-run media reported that at least seven people were killed in Kangwon province, with an eighth fatality reported elsewhere. It said the storm caused significant damage, destroying 650 dwelling houses, 30 public buildings, railways, roads, bridges, and various systems. Flooding from the storm inundated 3,870 homes, which left at least 16,250 homeless.[18]

On 29 July the North Korean government dramatically raised the death toll in the country to 88, with an additional 134 injured. At least 63,000 were made homeless by the flooding, while more than 30,000 hectares of land for growing crops were submerged and will add to growing fears of another looming famine in the country. [19]

On 31 July United Nations staff visited flood-ravaged areas in hard-hit South Pyongan and Kangwon provinces. Heavy rain continued along the western edge of the country, including the capital Pyongyang. North Korea's official media reported that premier Choe Yong Rim visited flooded towns and discussed ways to help recovery efforts.[20]

AftermathEdit

The North Korean government requested assistance from resident United Nations agencies. On 4 August, government sources announced the death toll from both Khanun and the torrential rains in late July had risen to 169, with around 400 others missing. At least 8,600 houses were destroyed and 44,000 houses were flooded, leaving more than 212,200 people homeless.[21]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Japan Meteorological Agency is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the western Pacific Ocean.[6]
  2. ^ All winds are in ten-minute sustained standards, as per the Japan Meteorological Agency,[16] unless otherwise stated.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Rain-battered Japan braces for arrival of typhoon". Taipei Times. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  2. ^ "Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Western and South Pacific Oceans Reissued from 140230Z-140600Z July 2012". weather.noaa.gov. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. July 14, 2012. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  3. ^ Bancroft, George P. (April 2013). Rychtar, Paula (ed.). "Marine Weather Review – North Pacific Area" (PDF). Mariners Weather Log. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 57 (1): 46. ISSN 0025-3367. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  4. ^ "Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Western and South Pacific Oceans from 140600Z-150600Z July 2012". weather.noaa.gov. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. July 14, 2012. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  5. ^ "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory 141800". weather.noaa.gov. Japan Meteorological Agency. July 14, 2012. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  6. ^ "Annual Report on Activities of the RSMC Tokyo – Typhoon Center 2000" (PDF). Japan Meteorological Agency. February 2001. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  7. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert 150430". weather.noaa.gov. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. July 15, 2012. Archived from the original on September 21, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  8. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 08W (Eight) Warning NR 01". weather.noaa.gov. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. July 15, 2012. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  9. ^ "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory 160600". weather.noaa.gov. Japan Meteorological Agency. July 16, 2012. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  10. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 08W (Eight) Warning NR 04". weather.noaa.gov. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. July 16, 2012. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  11. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin Number One for Tropical Storm "Enteng" (Khanun)". pagasa.dost.gov.ph. PAGASA. July 16, 2012. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  12. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin Number Two (Final) for Tropical Storm "Enteng" (Khanun)". pagasa.dost.gov.ph. PAGASA. July 16, 2012. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  13. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 08W (Khanun) Warning NR 05". weather.noaa.gov. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. July 16, 2012. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  14. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 08W (Khanun) Warning NR 08". weather.noaa.gov. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. July 17, 2012. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  15. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 08W (Khanun) Warning NR 09". weather.noaa.gov. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. July 17, 2012. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  16. ^ a b Annual Report on the Activities of the RSMC Tokyo - Typhoon Center 2012 (PDF) (Report). Japan Meteorological Agency. 2013. p. 74. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  17. ^ Annual Global Climate and Catastrophe Report Impact Forecasting—2012 (PDF) (Report). AON. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  18. ^ "Tropical Storm Khanun kills at least 7 in North Korea". BNO News. 25 July 2012. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  19. ^ "Scores killed in North Korea floods". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  20. ^ "UN visits North Korea to see flood-damaged areas". Huffington Post. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  21. ^ "WFP sends emergency food aid to North Korea after floods kill 169". BNO News. 5 August 2012. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2012.

External linksEdit