Triphenylmethane

  (Redirected from Trityl)

Triphenylmethane, or triphenyl methane, is the hydrocarbon with the formula (C6H5)3CH. This colorless solid is soluble in nonpolar organic solvents and not in water. Triphenylmethane is the basic skeleton of many synthetic dyes called triarylmethane dyes, many of them are pH indicators, and some display fluorescence. A trityl group in organic chemistry is a triphenylmethyl group Ph3C, e.g. triphenylmethyl chloride (trityl chloride) and the triphenylmethyl radical (trityl radical).

Triphenylmethane
Triphenylmethan.svg
Triphenylmethane-3D-balls.png
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
1,1′,1′′-Methanetriyltribenzene
Other names
Triphenylmethane
1,1′,1′′-Methylidynetrisbenzene
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.007.524 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 208-275-0
UNII
  • InChI=1S/C19H16/c1-4-10-16(11-5-1)19(17-12-6-2-7-13-17)18-14-8-3-9-15-18/h1-15,19H checkY
    Key: AAAQKTZKLRYKHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  • InChI=1/C19H16/c1-4-10-16(11-5-1)19(17-12-6-2-7-13-17)18-14-8-3-9-15-18/h1-15,19H
    Key: AAAQKTZKLRYKHR-UHFFFAOYAF
  • c1c(cccc1)C(c2ccccc2)c3ccccc3
Properties
C19H16
Molar mass 244.337 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless solid
Density 1.014 g/cm3
Melting point 92 to 94 °C (198 to 201 °F; 365 to 367 K)
Boiling point 359 °C (678 °F; 632 K)
Insoluble
Solubility Soluble in dioxane[1] and hexane
Acidity (pKa) 33.3
−165.6×10−6 cm3/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet External MSDS
R-phrases (outdated) R36 R37 R38
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

PreparationEdit

Triphenylmethane was first synthesized in 1872 by the German chemist August Kekulé and his Belgian student Antoine Paul Nicolas Franchimont (1844–1919) by heating diphenylmercury (Hg(C6H5)2, Quecksilberdiphenyl) with benzal chloride (C6H5CHCl2, Benzylenchlorid).[2]

Triphenylmethane can be synthesized by Friedel–Crafts reaction from benzene and chloroform with aluminium chloride catalyst:

3 C6H6 + CHCl3 → Ph3CH + 3 HCl

Alternatively, benzene may react with carbon tetrachloride using the same catalyst to obtain the triphenylmethyl chloridealuminium chloride adduct, which is hydrolyzed with dilute acid:[3]

3 C6H6 + CCl4 + AlCl3 → Ph3CCl·AlCl3
Ph3CCl·AlCl3 + HCl → Ph3CH

Synthesis from benzylidene chloride, prepared from benzaldehyde and phosphorus pentachloride, is used as well.

Reactions of C-H bondEdit

The pKa is 33.3.[4] Triphenylmethane is significantly more acidic than most other hydrocarbons because the charge is delocalized over three phenyl rings. Steric effects however prevent all three phenyl rings from achieving coplanarity simultaneously. Consequently diphenylmethane is even more acidic, because in its anion the charge is spread over two phenyl rings at the same time. The trityl anion is red. This colour can be used as an indicator in acid–base titrations.

The sodium salt can be prepared also from the chloride:[5]

(C6H5)3CCl + 2 Na → (C6H5)3CNa + NaCl

The use of tritylsodium as a strong, non-nucleophilic base has been eclipsed by the popularization of butyllithium and related strong bases.

The Ph3C-H bond is relatively weak, with a bond dissociation energy (BBDE) of 81 kcal/mol. By contrast, the BDE for methane is 105 kcal/mol.[6]

Triarylmethane dyesEdit

Examples of triarylmethane dyes are bromocresol green:

 

And the nitrogen-bearing malachite green:

 

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Triphenylmethane | 519-73-3".
  2. ^ Aug. Kekulé and A. Franchimont (1872) "Ueber das Triphenylmethan" (On triphenylmethane), Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 5 : 906–908.
  3. ^ J. F. Norris (1925). "Triphenylmethane". Organic Syntheses. 4: 81. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.004.0081.
  4. ^ Ronald Breslow and William Chu (1969). "Electrochemical determinations of pKa's. Triphenylmethanes and cycloheptatriene". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 92 (7): 2165. doi:10.1021/ja00710a077.
  5. ^ W. B. Renfrow Jr and C. R. Hauser (1943). "Triphenylmethylsodium". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, 2, p. 607
  6. ^ Xue, Xiao-Song; Ji, Pengju; Zhou, Biying; Cheng, Jin-Pei (2017). "The Essential Role of Bond Energetics in C–H Activation/Functionalization". Chemical Reviews. 117 (13): 8622–8648. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00664. PMID 28281752.