Community of Sahel–Saharan States
The Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN-SAD; Arabic: تجمع دول الساحل والصحراء; French: Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens; Portuguese: Comunidade dos Estados Sahelo-Saarianos) aims to create a free trade area within a region of Africa. There are questions with regard to whether its level of economic integration qualifies it under the enabling clause of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
Community of Sahel–Saharan States
تجمع دول الساحل والصحراء
Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens
Comunidade dos Estados Sahelo-Saarianos
|Membership||29 member states|
• Secretary General
|Ibrahim Sani Abani (acting)|
• Agreement signed
|4 February 1998|
CEN-SAD was established in February 1998 by six countries, but since then its membership has grown to 29. One of its main goals is to achieve economic unity through the implementation of the free movement of people and goods in order to make the area occupied by member states a free trade area. At the international level, CEN-SAD gained observer status at the UN General Assembly in 2001 and concluded association and cooperation accords with the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and with UN specialized agencies and institutions such as UNDP, WHO, UNESCO, FAO, and the Permanent Interstate Committee for drought control in the Sahel.
All CEN-SAD member countries are also participating in other African economic unions, that have the aim to create a common African Economic Community. The envisioned Free Trade Area of CEN-SAD would be hard to practically implement, because it is overlapping with the envisioned customs unions of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS/CEDEAO), ECCAS and COMESA and other trade blocs more advanced in their integration.
At the summit of 1–2 June 2005 in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), the heads of state decided to create a "high authority for water, agriculture and seeds" in order to allow member countries to develop their agriculture through better control of water resources and seed selection. On the other hand, the summit to decide to study the construction of a railway line connecting Libya, Chad, Niger, with ramps to Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal, to facilitate exchanges and to open up the CEN-SAD space. Blaise Compaoré, president of Burkina Faso, succeeded Malian President Amadou Toumani Toure as current president of CEN-SAD.
The African leaders sought to reconcile differences between neighbours Chad and Sudan over the Darfur conflict and boost Somalia's embattled Transitional Federal Government at a regional summit in Libya on June 3, 2007.
The 10th Summit of Heads of State of the Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN-SAD) met on June 28, 2008 in Cotonou on June 18. Its theme was Rural Development and Food Security in the CEN-SAD area. Beninese President Yayi Boni has been elected current President of CEN-SAD for a one-year term.
Parts of this article (those related to pre-2010 deadlines) need to be updated.(November 2010)
Beginning in 2009, CEN-SAD member states will take part in planned periodic international sporting and cultural festivals, known as the Community of Sahel–Saharan States Games (Jeux de la Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens). The first CEN-SAD Games were held in Niamey, Niger from 4–14 February 2009. Thirteen nations competed in Under-20 sports (athletics, basketball, judo, football, handball, table tennis and traditional wrestling) and six fields of cultural competition (song, traditional creation and inspiration dancing, painting, sculpture and photography). The second CEN-SAD Games was scheduled to take place in the Chadian capitol of N’Djamena in February 2011.
List of membersEdit
|Population||GDP (PPP) ($US)||Notes|
(all states are also members of the
United Nations and of the African Union)
|Benin||2002||114,763||10,008,749||2013 census||29,918||2,552||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA|
|Burkina Faso||1998–||274,200||14,017,262||2006 census||45,339||792||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA|
|Cape Verde||2009–||4,033||543,767||2019 est.||4,323||3,651||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO|
|Central African Republic||1999–||622,984||4,666,368||2019 est.||4,262||823||also member of ECCAS/CEEAC and CEMAC|
|Chad||1998–||1,284,000||13,670,084||2015 est.||30,000||2,428||also member of ECCAS/CEEAC and CEMAC|
|Comoros||2007–||1,861||850,688||2018 est.||2,446||2,799||also member of SADC and COMESA|
|Djibouti||2000–||23,200||also member of IGAD and COMESA|
|Egypt||2001–||1,010,408||also member of COMESA, candidate to AMU/UMA|
|Eritrea||1999–||117,600||also member of IGAD and COMESA|
|Gambia||2000–||10,689||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ|
|Ghana||2005–||239,567||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ|
|Guinea||2007–||245,857||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ|
|Guinea-Bissau||2004–||36,125||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA|
|Ivory Coast||2004–||322,463||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA|
|Kenya||2007–||580,367||also member of IGAD, EAC and COMESA|
|Liberia||2004–||111,369||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ|
|Libya||1998–||1,759,541||6,871,287||2019 est.||also member of AMU/UMA and COMESA|
|Mali||1998–||1,240,192||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA|
|Mauritania||2007–||1,030,000||also member of AMU/UMA|
|also member of AMU/UMA|
|Niger||1998–||1,267,000||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA|
|Nigeria||2001–||923,769||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||2007–||1,001||also member of ECCAS/CEEAC and CEMAC|
|Senegal||2000–||196,712||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA|
|Sierra Leone||2005–||71,740||7,092,113||2015 census||12,177||1,608||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ|
|Somalia||2001–||637,657||also member of IGAD and COMESA|
(2,505,813 before 2011)
|177,678||4,232||also member of IGAD and COMESA|
|Togo||2002–||56,785||also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA|
|Tunisia||2001–||163,610||11,722,038||2019 census||159,707||3,713||also member of AMU/UMA and COMESA|
|Total (29 members)||14,680,111
- Bénin : Yayi Boni élu président en exercice de la CEN-SAD, Pana, 18 juin 2008
- Nickels, Benjamin P. (January 3, 2013). "Morocco's Engagement with the Sahel Community". SADA. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- La première édition des Jeux de la CEN-SAD en février 2009 au Niger.[permanent dead link] APANEWS, 17 June 2008.
- Maiden CEN-SAD Games ends in glory in Niamey. [permanent dead link] APA News. 2009-02-15.
- "BENIN en Chiffres" [BENIN in Figures]. INSAE (in French). Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - Burkina Faso". International Monetary Fund.
- "Cape Verde becomes CEN-SAD's 29th member country". www.panapress.com.
- United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. "World Population prospects – Population division". population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). Retrieved 9 November 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019). "Overall total population – World Population Prospects" (xlsx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). Retrieved 9 November 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - Cape Verde". International Monetary Fund.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - Central African Republic". International Monetary Fund. 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- Projections demographiques 2009–2050 Tome 1: Niveau national (PDF) (Report) (in French). INSEED. July 2014. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - Chad". International Monetary Fund. 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- "CEN-SAD celebrates 13th anniversary". Panapress. 4 February 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - Comoros". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Morocco: the area 446,550 km2 (172,410 sq mi) excludes all disputed territories, while 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi) includes the Moroccan-claimed and partially-controlled parts of Western Sahara (claimed as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic by the Polisario Front). Morocco also claims Ceuta and Melilla, making up about 22.8 km2 (8.8 sq mi) more claimed territory.
- "Sierra Leone 2015 Population and Housing Census National Analytical Report" (PDF). Statistics Sierra Leone. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- "Sierra Leone". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Membership of Sudan in CEN-SAD was formerly including South Sudan, but only before its independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011; after its independence, South Sudan did not join CEN-SAD, but joined EAC instead, while also choosing to remain in IGAD.
- "Sudan - Official population clock". cbs.gov.sd.
- (disputed) "Discontent over Sudan census". News24. Cape Town. Agence France-Presse. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- "Sudan - PPP GDP". International Monetary Fund.
- "Sudan - PPP per capita". International Monetary Fund.
- "Population". National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Tunisia". International Monetary Fund.